Marine Biology

, Volume 152, Issue 1, pp 87–93 | Cite as

Boundary between the north and south Atlantic populations of the swordfish (Xiphias gladius) inferred by a single nucleotide polymorphism at calmodulin gene intron

  • S. ChowEmail author
  • S. Clarke
  • M. Nakadate
  • M. Okazaki
Research Article


Genetic differentiation of the Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius) was investigated by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the calmodulin gene (CAM) intron locus. Clearly distinct allele and genotype frequencies were observed between the north (20–41°N) and mid-south (10°N–33°S) Atlantic samples. Much lower frequency of A allele (37.5–57.1%) was observed in the north samples (n = 160 in total) than in the mid-south samples (83.3–92.6%; n=354), and homozygote BB was common in the north samples (23.4–31.3%) but very rare or absent (0–3.9%) in the mid-south samples. Very strong population subdivision was observed between the two groups (F ST = 0.34, P < 0.001), while the allele and genotype frequencies within each ocean basin persisted over time (1990–2002 in the north, and 1994–2002 in the mid-south). Of two samples from the presumed boundary zone, one (n = 18) (14°N, 48°W) presented intermediate frequencies of the A allele (66.7%) and BB homozygote (11.1%), while the other (n = 23) (10–17°N, 28–37°W) shared similar frequencies of the A allele (89.1%) and BB homozygote (4.3%) with those of the mid-south Atlantic samples. These results indicate that the gene flow and individual migration between the north and mid-south Atlantic populations are considerably restricted and that the current management boundary between the north and south Atlantic swordfish stocks of 5°N should be reconsidered.


Spiny Lobster Atlantic Population North Atlantic Calmodulin Gene Shallow Thermocline 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We would like to thank T. Matsumoto, K. Yokawa and H. Saito, National Research Institute of Far Seas Fisheries, the crew of R. V. Shoyo Maru, the Fisheries Agency of Japan, anonymous onboard observers, and the Japan Tuna Federation, for assisting with sample collection. This work was supported in part by grants from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and the Fisheries Agency of Japan.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Research Institute of Fisheries ScienceKanagawaJapan
  2. 2.Imperial College, Silwood Park CampusAscotUK
  3. 3.National Research Institute of Far Seas FisheriesShizuokaJapan
  4. 4.National Research Institute of Far Seas FisheriesKanagawaJapan

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