Skip to main content

Effects of extracts on the colour of thermally modified Populus tomentosa Carr.

Abstract

Thermal modification can improve the dimensional stability of wood without the use of biocides, but the process also changes the colour. Changes in relative amounts of chromophores and auxochromes of poplar extracts during thermal modification were investigated by pre-extraction of ground wood in increasingly polar solvents followed by thermal modification. Changes in wood colour and FTIR spectra were used to assess the effects of extraction/thermal modification, while selected extracts were analysed by GC–MS. Colour of non-modified poplar was mainly affected by ethanol extraction, while thermally modified poplar was most affected by 1,4-dioxane and acetone extraction. GC–MS analysis to characterize the main chromophores and auxochromes in the 1,4-dioxane and acetone extracts from non-modified or thermally modified poplar suggested that chromophores and/or auxochromes in extracts including carbonyl, vinyl, benzene ring and hydroxyl groups tended to be much more abundant in thermally modified poplar which accounts for the darkening of the wood.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. Bal BC (2018) A comparative study of some of the mechanical properties of pine wood heat treated in vacuum, nitrogen and air atmospheres. BioResources 13(3):5504–5511. https://doi.org/10.15376/biores.13.3.5504-5511

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Burtin P, Jay-Allemand C, Charpentier JP, Janin G (2000) Modifications of hybrid walnut (Juglans nigra 23 × Juglans regia) wood color and phenolic composition under various steaming conditions. Holzforschung 54:333–338. https://doi.org/10.1515/HF.2000.006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Chen Y, Fan YM, Gao JM, Li HK (2012) Coloring characteristics of in situ lignin during heat treatment. Wood Sci Technol 46(1–3):33–40. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00226-010-0388-5

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Chen Y, Tshabalala MA, Gao JM, Stark NM, Fan YM (2014) Color and surface chemistry changes of extracted wood flour after heating at 120℃. Wood Sci Technol 48(1):137–150. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00226-013-0582-3

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. de Cademartori PHG, Schneid E, Gatto DA, Beltrame R, Stangerlin DM (2012) Modification of static bending strength properties of Eucalyptus grandis heat-treated wood. Mat Res 15(6):922–927. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-14392012005000136

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. de Oliveira AS, Rocha Vital B, Oliveira B, Carneiro ADO, Lourenco A, Pereira H (2016) Physical and mechanical properties of heat-treated wood from Aspidosperma populifolium, Dipteryx odorata and Mimosa scabrella. Maderas-Cienc Tecnol 18(1):143–156. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-221X2016005000015

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Deka M, Saikia CN (2000) Chemical modification of wood with thermosetting resin: effect on dimensional stability and strength property. Bioresource Technol 73(2):179–181. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(99)00167-4

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Dubey MK, Pang SS, Walker J (2011) Effect of oil heating age on colour and dimensional stability of heat-treated Pinus radiata. Eur J Wood Prod 69(2):255–262. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-010-0431-0

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Esteves B, Marques AV, Domingos I, Pereira H (2013) Chemical changes of heat-treated pine and Eucalypt wood monitored by FTIR. Maderas-Cienc Tecnol 15(2):245–258. https://repositorio.ipv.pt/bitstream/10400.19/4301/1/MCT2012-0008_363%20last%20version_15102012_R1_27102012_7112012.pdf

  10. Gao JM, Yi XS, Mu J, Meng LS (2009) Effects of extractives on induced discoloration of Betula costata trautv. treated by saturated steaming. J Beijing for Univ 31(S1):77–80. https://doi.org/10.13332/j.1000-1522.2009.s1.040

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Gao S, Chen Y, Gao JM (2015) Effect of extractives on color changes of Eucalyptus urophylla×Eucalyptus grandis and its spectrum analysis. J Northeast for Univ 43(4):73–76. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-221X2013005000020

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Gao H, Sun M, Cheng HY, Gao WL, Ding XL (2016) Effects of heat treatment under vacuum on properties of poplar. BioResources 11(1):1031–1043. https://doi.org/10.15376/biores.11.1.1031-1043

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Gonzalez-Pena MM, Hale M (2009) Colour in thermally modified wood of beech, Norway spruce and Scots pine. Part 2: property predictions from colour changes. Holzforschung 63(4):394–401. https://doi.org/10.1515/HF.2009.077

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Jeffries WL (1914) Color and structure in organic compounds. J Mitchell Soc 81–88. https://dc.lib.unc.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/jncas/id/1171/rec/2

  15. Johansson D, Morén T (2006) The potential of colour measurement for strength prediction of thermally treated wood. Holz Roh- Werkst 64(2):104–110. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-005-0082-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Li RR, Xu W, Wang XD, Wang CG (2018) Modeling and predicting of the color changes of wood surface during CO2 laser modification. Jour Clean Prod 183:818–823. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.02.194

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Mayer I, Koch G, Puls J (2006) Topochemical investigations on wood extractives and their influence on color changes in American black cherry (Prunus serotina Borkh.). Holzforschung 60:589–594. https://doi.org/10.1515/HF.2006.100

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Mecca M, D’Auria M, Todaro L (2019) Effect of heat treatment on wood chemical composition, extraction yield and quality of the extractives of some wood species by the use of molybdenum catalysts. Wood Sci Technol 53:119–133. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00226-018-1057-3

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Moya R, Fallas RS, Bonilla PJ, Tenorio C (2012) Relationship between wood color parameters measured by the CIELab system and extractive and phenol content in Acacia mangium and Vochysia guatemalensis from fast-growth plantations. Molecules 17:3639–3652. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17043639

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  20. Pandey K (2005) A note on the influence of extractives on the photo-discoloration and photo-degradation of wood. Polym Degard Stabil 87(2):375–379. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2004.09.007

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Priadi T, Hiziroglu S (2013) Characterization of heat-treated wood species. Mater Des Mater Des 49:575–582. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2012.12.067

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Rajiv P, Deepa A, Vanathi P, Vidhya D (2016) Screening for phytochemicals and FTIR analysis of Myristica dactyloides fruit extracts. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 9(1):315–318. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijpps.2017v9i1.11053

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Salca EA, Kobori H, Inagaki T, Kojima Y, Suzuki S (2016) Effect of heat treatment on colour changes of black alder and beech veneers. J Wood Sci 62(4):297–304. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10086-016-1558-3

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Sandoval-Torres S, Jomaa W, Marc F, Puiggali JR (2010) Causes of color changes in wood during drying. For Stud China 12(4):167–175. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11632-010-0404-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Tripathi S, Pant H, Kashyap AK (2014) Decay resistance against basidiomycetes fungi of heat-treated Pinus roxburghii and Mangifera indica wood. J Trop For Sci 26(2):203–207. https://www.frim.gov.my/v1/JTFSOnline/jtfs/v26n2/203-207.pdf

  26. Wang Z, Sun BL, Liu JL (2016) Effect of thermo-vacuum treatment on the color and chemistry of larch wood. BioResources 11(1):2346–2360. https://doi.org/10.15376/biores.11.1.2349-2360

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Yu SF, Liu Y, Li XJ, Luo WS (2015) Relations among different structure of reactive blue dyes and poplar dyeing properties. J Cent South Univ For T 35(2): 96–99, 108. https://doi.org/10.14067/j.cnki.1673-923x.2015.02.018

  28. Zanuncio AJV, Carvalho AG, de Souza MT, Jardim CM, Carneiro ADO, Colodette JL (2015) Effect of extractives on wood color of heat-treated Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus pellita. Maderas-Cienc Tecnol 17(4):857–864. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-221X2015005000074

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31971590) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2452019057).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Li Yan.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest in the submission of this manuscript, and manuscript has been approved by all authors for publication.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bi, Z., Yuan, J., Morrell, J.J. et al. Effects of extracts on the colour of thermally modified Populus tomentosa Carr.. Wood Sci Technol 55, 1075–1090 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00226-021-01304-7

Download citation