Skip to main content

Effects of natural weathering on the chemical composition of cell walls in sapwood and heartwood of Japanese cedar

Abstract

Exposure to outdoor conditions can cause chemical components on wood surfaces to deteriorate. To develop effective wood protection methods, a deep understanding of the mechanisms of weathering-induced wood surface degradation is required. However, the effects of outdoor exposure on wood at the cellular level have not been investigated in detail. Additionally, a comparative study of the degradation behavior of sapwood and heartwood has also not been conducted. This paper investigated the chemical changes in cell walls in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) sapwood and heartwood during natural weathering using confocal Raman microscopy. Spectral and chemical mapping revealed that heartwood had higher weather durability than sapwood due to the large extractives content in heartwood. Although there were differences in the rates of lignin reduction between sapwood and heartwood, the molecular structures and lignin-degraded sites of the weathered samples were almost identical. The degradation patterns of naturally weathered wood were also similar to that of artificially weathered wood. The knowledge revealed here will help in the development of more effective wood protection methods.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. Agarwal UP (1998) Assignment of the photoyellowing-related 1675 cm−1 Raman/IR band to p-quinones and its implications to the mechanism of color reversion in mechanical pulps. J Wood Chem Technol 18:381–402

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Agarwal UP (1999) An overview of Raman spectroscopy as applied to lignocellulosic materials. In: Argyropoulos DS (ed) Advances in lignocellulosics characterization. TAPPI Press, Atlanta GA, pp 201–225

    Google Scholar 

  3. Agarwal UP, Atalla RH, Forsskåhl I (1995) Sequential treatment of mechanical and chemimechanical pulps with light and heat: a Raman spectroscopic study. Holzforschung 49:300–312

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Agarwal UP, Atalla RH (2000) Using Raman spectroscopy to identify chromophores in lignin-lignocellulosics. In: Glasser WG, Northey RA, Schultz TP (eds) Lignin: historical, biological, and materials perspectives. American Chemical Society, Washington DC, pp 250–264

    Google Scholar 

  5. Agarwal UP, Ralph SA (1997) FT-Raman spectroscopy of wood: identifying contributions of lignin and carbohydrate polymers in the spectrum of black spruce (Picea mariana). Appl Spectrosc 51:1648–1655

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Agarwal UP, Ralph SA (2008) Determination of ethylenic residues in wood and TMP of spruce by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Holzforschung 62:667–675

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Agarwal UP, McSweeny JD (1997) Photoyellowing of thermomechanical pulps: looking beyond α-carbonyl and ethylenic groups as the initiating structures. J Wood Chem Technol 17:1–26

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Agarwal UP, McSweeny JD, Ralph SA (2011) FT-Raman investigation of milled wood lignins: softwood, hardwood, and chemically modified black spruce lignins. J Wood Chem Tech 31:324–344

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Bamber RK, Summerville R (1981) Microscopic studies of the weathering of radiata pine sapwood. J Inst Wood Sci 9:84–87

    Google Scholar 

  10. Bejo L, Tolvaj L, Kannar A, Preklet E (2019) Effect of water leaching on photodegraded spruce wood monitored by IR spectroscopy. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 382:111948

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Belt T, Keplinger T, Hänninen T, Rautkari L (2017) Cellular level distributions of Scots pine heartwood and knot heartwood extractives revealed by Raman spectroscopy imaging. Ind Crops Prod 108:327–335

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Bito N, Nakada R, Fukatsu E, Matsushita Y, Fukushima K, Imai T (2011) Clonal variation in heartwood norlignans of Cryptomeria japonica: evidence for independent control of agatharesinol and sequirin C biosynthesis. Ann for Sci 68:1049–1056

    Google Scholar 

  13. Browne FL, Simonson HC (1957) The penetration of light into wood. Forest Prod J 7:308–314

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Chang TC, Chang HT, Wu CL, Lin HY, Chang ST (2010) Stabilizing effect of extractives on the photo-oxidation of Acacia confusa wood. Polym Degrad Stab 95:1518–1522

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Cogulet A, Blanchet P, Landry V (2016) Wood degradation under UV irradiation: a lignin characterization. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol 158:184–191

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Csanády E, Magoss E, Tolvaj L (2015) Quality of machined wood surfaces. Springer International Publishing, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  17. Edwards HGM, Farwell DW, Webster D (1997) FT Raman microscopy of untreated natural plant fibres. Spectrochim Acta Part A 53:2383–2392

    Google Scholar 

  18. Evans PD (2008) Weathering and photoprotection of wood. In: Schultz TP, Militz H, Freeman MH, Goodbel B, Nicholas DD (eds) Development of commercial wood preservatives. Efficacy, environmental, and health issues. American Chemical Society, Washington DC, pp 69–117

    Google Scholar 

  19. Evans P, Chowdhury MJ, Mathews B, Schmalzl K, Ayer S, Kiguchi M, Kataoka Y (2005) Weathering and surface protection of wood. In: Kutz M (ed) Handbook of environmental degradation of materials. William Andrew Publishing, Norwich, pp 277–297

    Google Scholar 

  20. Fackler K, Thygesen LG (2013) Microspectroscopy as applied to the study of wood molecular structure. Wood Sci Technol 47:203–222

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Feist WC (1989) Outdoor wood weathering and protection. In: Rowell RM, Barbour RJ (eds) Archaeological wood: properties, chemistry, and preservation. American Chemical Society, Washington DC, pp 263–298

    Google Scholar 

  22. Fengel D, Wegener G (1989) Wood: chemistry, ultrastructure, reactions. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  23. Ganne-Chédeville C, Jääskeläinen AS, Froidevaux J, Hughes M, Navi P (2012) Naturaland artificial ageing of spruce wood as observed by FTIR-ATR and UVRR spectroscopy. Holzforschung 66:163–170

    Google Scholar 

  24. Halliwell SM (1992) Weathering of polymers. In: Dolbey R (ed) Rapra review report. Rapra Publication, Shropshire

    Google Scholar 

  25. Hon DNS (1991) Photochemistry of wood. In: Hon DNS, Shiraishi N (eds) Wood and cellulosic chemistry. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 525–555

    Google Scholar 

  26. Hon DNS, Ifju G (1978) Measuring penetration of light into wood by detection of photo-induced free radicals. Wood Sci 11:118–127

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Horn BA, Qiu J, Owen NL, Feist WC (1994) FT-IR study of weathering effects in western redcedar and southern pine. Appl Spectrosc 48:662–668

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Jääskeläinen AS, Saariaho AM, Vyörykkä J, Vuorinen T, Matousek P, Parker AW (2006) Application of UV-Vis and resonance Raman spectroscopy to study bleaching and photoyellowing of thermomechanical pulps. Holzforschung 60:231–238

    Google Scholar 

  29. Jirous-Rajkovic V, Turkulin H, Miller ER (2004) Depth profile of UV-induced wood surface degradation. Surf Coat Int B Coat Trans 87:241–247

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Kanbayashi T, Kataoka Y, Ishikawa A, Matsunaga M, Kobayashi M, Kiguchi M (2018a) Depth profiling of photodegraded wood surfaces by confocal Raman microscopy. J Wood Sci 64:169–172

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Kanbayashi T, Kataoka Y, Ishikawa A, Matsunaga M, Kobayashi M, Kiguchi M (2018b) Confocal Raman microscopy reveals changes in chemical composition of wood surfaces exposed to artificial weathering. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol 187:136–140

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Kataoka Y, Kiguchi M (2001) Depth profiling of photo-induced degradation in wood by FT-IR microspectroscopy. J Wood Sci 47:325–327

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Kataoka Y, Kiguchi M, Evans PD (2004) Photodegradation depth profile and penetration of light in Japanese cedar earlywood (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) exposed to artificial solar radiation. Surf Coat Int B Coat Trans 87:187–193

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Kataoka Y, Kiguchi M, Fujiwara T, Evans PD (2005) The effects of within-species and between-species variation in wood density on the photodegradation depth profiles of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) and hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa). J Wood Sci 51:531–536

    Google Scholar 

  35. Kataoka Y, Kiguchi M, Williams RS, Evans PD (2007) Violet light causes photodegradation of wood beyond the zone affected by ultraviolet radiation. Holzforschung 61:23–27

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Kihara M, Takayama M, Wariishi H, Tanaka H (2002) Determination of the carbonyl groups in native lignin utilizing Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. Spectrochim Acta Part A Mol Spectrosc 58:2213–2221

    Google Scholar 

  37. Kostamovaara J, Tenhunen J, Kögler M, Nissinen I, Nissinen J, Keränen P (2013) Fluorescence suppression in Raman spectroscopy using a time-gated CMOS SPAD. Opt Express 21:31632–32645

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Norrström H (1969) Light absorbing properties of pulp and pulp components. Part 2. Sulfite Pulp Svensk Papperstidning 72:32–38

    Google Scholar 

  39. Pandey KK (2005a) A note on the influence of extractives on the photo-discoloration and photo-degradation of wood. Polym Degrad Stab 87:375–379

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. Pandey KK (2005b) Study of the effect of photo-irradiation on the surface chemistry of wood. Polym Degrad Stab 90:9–20

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. Pandey KK, Vuorinen T (2008a) UV resonance Raman spectroscopic study of photodegradation of hardwood and softwood lignins by UV laser. Holzforschung 62:183–188

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Pandey KK, Vuorinen T (2008b) Comparative study of photodegradation of wood by a UV laser and a xenon light source. Polym Degrad Stab 93:2138–2146

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. Park BS, Furuno T, Uehara T (1996) Histochemical changes of wood surfaces irradiated with ultraviolet light. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 42:1–9

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. Paulsson M, Parkås J (2012) Review: Light-induced yellowing of lignocellulosic pulps—mechanisms and preventive methods. BioResources 7:5595–6040

    Google Scholar 

  45. Prats-Mateu B, Bock P, Gierlinger N (2020) Raman imaging of plant cell walls. In: Popper ZA (ed) The plant cell wall. Springer International Publishing, Berlin, pp 251–295

    Google Scholar 

  46. Saariaho AM, Argyropoulos DS, Jääskeläinen AS, Vuorinen T (2005) Development of the partial least squares models for the interpretation of the UV resonance Raman spectra of lignin model compounds. Vib Spectrosc 37:111–121

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. Sandberg K (2008) Degradation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) heartwood and sapwood during 5.5 years’ above-ground exposure. Wood Mat Sci Eng 3:83–93

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. Schulz U (2009) Accelerated testing: nature and artificial weathering in the coatings industry. Vincentz Network, Hannover

    Google Scholar 

  49. Smith E, Dent G (2005) Modern Raman spectroscopy: a practical approach. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester

    Google Scholar 

  50. Sudiyani Y, Imamura Y, Doi S, Yamauchi S (2003) Infrared spectroscopic investigations of weathering effects on the surface of tropical wood. J Wood Sci 49:86–92

    Google Scholar 

  51. Teacă CA, Roşu D, Bodîrlău R, Roşu L (2013) Structural changes in wood under artificial UV light irradiation determined by FTIR spectroscopy and color measurements—a brief review. BioResources 8:1478–1507

    Google Scholar 

  52. Tolvaj L, Papp G (1999) Outdoor weathering of impregnated and steamed black locust. In: proceedings of the 4th international conference on the development of wood science, wood technology and forestry (ICWSF), 14−16 July 1999, Missenden Abbey, pp 112−115

  53. Timar MC, Varodi AM, Gurău L (2016) Comparative study of photodegradation of six wood species after short-time UV exposure. Wood Sci Technol 50:135–163

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. Varga D, Tolvaj L, Molnar Z, Pasztory Z (2020) Leaching effect of water on photodegraded hardwood species monitored by IR spectroscopy. Wood Sci Technol 54:1407–1421

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. Wiley JH, Atalla RH (1987) Band assignments in the Raman spectra of celluloses. Carbohydr Res 160:113–129

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. Yamauchi S, Sudiyani Y, Imamura Y, Doi S (2004) Depth profiling of weathered tropical wood using Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. J Wood Sci 50:433–438

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  57. Zhao Y, Man Y, Wen J, Guo Y, Lin J (2019) Advances in imaging plant cell walls. Trends Plant Sci 24:867–878

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. Živković V, Arnold M, Radmanović K, Richter K, Turkulin H (2014) Spectral sensitivity in the photodegradation of fir wood (Abies alba Mill.) surfaces: colour changes in natural weathering. Wood Sci Technol 48:239–252

    Google Scholar 

  59. Živković V, Arnold M, Pandey KK, Richter K, Turkulin H (2016) Spectral sensitivity in the photodegradation of fir wood (Abies alba Mill.) surfaces: correspondence of physical and chemical changes in natural weathering. Wood Sci Technol 50:989–1002

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) (No. 17K15299) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). The authors wish to thank the Kyoto Integrated Science & Technology Bio-Analysis Center (KIST-BIC) for its assistance with the Raman microscopic analysis.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Toru Kanbayashi.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kanbayashi, T., Matsunaga, M. & Kobayashi, M. Effects of natural weathering on the chemical composition of cell walls in sapwood and heartwood of Japanese cedar. Wood Sci Technol 55, 1013–1024 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00226-021-01301-w

Download citation