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XRD investigation of mechanical properties of cellulose microfibrils in S1 and S3 layers of thermally modified wood under tensile loading

Abstract

This research examines the effect of thermal modification on the mechanical properties of the soft wood cell wall in order to clarify the relationship between the micro-level behavior (cellulose microfibrils) and macro-level behavior (bulk wood). The thermal modification of three stages at two different temperatures was conducted on the specimens. Then, the synchrotron radiation XRD under tensile loading in the axial direction of thermally modified bulk wood was performed. Simultaneously, the lattice strain of cellulose in the S1 and S3 layers and the strain of bulk wood were obtained. As a result of the tensile test, for unmodified specimens, the load–strain relationship of the cellulose microfibrils in the S1 and S3 layers showed linear behavior similar to bulk wood. In contrast, for thermally modified specimens, it was found that the load–strain relationship of the cellulose microfibrils in the S1 and S3 layers was not linear. The effects of thermal modification on tensile properties of bulk wood differed from that of the cellulose microfibrils in the S1 and S3 layers. Furthermore, when compared with the results of the cellulose microfibrils in the S2 layer, the effect of thermal modification was different between the cell wall layers. The reason for this was suggested by the orientation angle and linearity of the cellulose microfibrils.

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Abbreviations

d :

Lattice spacing of the cellulose (004) plane (Å)

MC:

Moisture content at the moment of testing (%)

MFA:

Microfibril angle (degree)

ML:

Mass loss ratio (%)

n :

Number of specimens

P B :

Tensile load acting on bulk wood (specimens) (N)

P Bmax :

Maximum tensile load acting on bulk wood (specimens) (N)

P C :

Tensile load acting on cellulose microfibrils (N)

P Cmax :

Maximum tensile load acting on cellulose microfibrils (the load associated with the maximum cellulose strain) (N)

ε B :

Strain of bulk wood obtained by strain gauge

ε Bmax :

Maximum strain of bulk wood obtained by strain gauge

ε C :

Strain of cellulose microfibrils obtained by XRD measurement

ε Cmax :

Maximum strain of cellulose microfibrils obtained by XRD measurement

θ :

Angle formed between the scattered X-rays and crystal face of cellulose microfibrils (degree)

ρ um :

Unmodified density (kg m−3)

ρ m :

Modified density at the moment of testing (kg m−3)

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Acknowledgement

This work was supported in part by the Photon-Beam Platform Project of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The XRD experiments were conducted at the BL8S1 of Aichi Synchrotron Radiation Center, Aichi Science & Technology Foundation, Aichi, Japan (Approval No. 2016G1012). This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) Number 17K06638.

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Correspondence to Mariko Yamasaki.

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Kojima, E., Yamasaki, M., Imaeda, K. et al. XRD investigation of mechanical properties of cellulose microfibrils in S1 and S3 layers of thermally modified wood under tensile loading. Wood Sci Technol 55, 955–969 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00226-021-01263-z

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