Cellulose nanocrystals with cellulose II polymorph (CNC-II) were obtained from primary sludge fiber (PSF) in a pulp and paper mill by sulfuric acid hydrolysis after purification to remove inorganic materials and lignin. The CNC-IIs obtained were applied as reinforcing fillers for polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Characterization of CNC-IIs was performed using FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The morphology, conductivity, and tensile properties of CNC-IIs-reinforced PVA nanocomposites were also investigated. Purification treatment effectively reduced non-cellulosic material in the sludge, increasing the cellulose content from 39.87 to 76.34%. The conductivity and tensile properties of the PVA/CNC-II nanocomposite was better than those of neat PVA and PVA/PSF composite.
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The authors would like to thank the Korean Forest Service for supporting this study.
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Risnasari, I., Febrianto, F., Wistara, N.J. et al. Characterization of cellulose nanocrystal with cellulose II polymorph from primary sludge and its application to PVA nanocomposites. Wood Sci Technol 52, 555–565 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00226-017-0976-8