Wood Science and Technology

, Volume 48, Issue 5, pp 1085–1105 | Cite as

Response surface methodology approach for methyl orange dye removal using optimized Acacia mangium wood activated carbon

  • Mohammed DanishEmail author
  • Rokiah Hashim
  • M. N. Mohamad Ibrahim
  • Othman Sulaiman


The existing approach of response surface methodology was extended to study the adsorption of methyl orange dye on optimized Acacia mangium wood-based activated carbon with a Brunauer, Emmett and Teller surface area of 1,767 m2/g. The experiments were carried out in a batch system, and the optimal condition was determined by means of the face-centered central composite design of response surface methodology. The effect of activated carbon dose, temperature and contact time on the adsorption capacity and percentage removal of methyl orange dye molecules were optimized. The experimental results indicated that the optimal conditions for the maximum adsorption capacity were 0.515 g/L, 55.0 °C and 24 h for adsorbent dose, temperature and contact time, respectively. Under these conditions, the maximum adsorption capacity and percentage removal were found to be 181 mg/g and 90.5 %, respectively. At optimized conditions of methyl orange dye removal, studies of the kinetic and thermodynamic behavior of adsorption revealed that it followed the pseudo-second-order rate model and was spontaneously endothermic in nature.


Activate Carbon Adsorption Capacity Removal Efficiency Contact Time Methyl Orange 
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List of symbols


X A /X Ae, fractional attainment of equilibrium


Net rate constant (1/min)


Forward rate constant (1/min)


Backward rate constant (1/min)

XAe and XA

Fractional conversion of adsorbate into complex with adsorbent at equilibrium

qe and qt

Sorption capacities at equilibrium and at any instantaneous time t (mg/g)


Time (min)


Rate constant of the pseudo-first-order kinetics (1/min)


Initial sorption rate as q t /t → 0, hence h = k 2·q e 2 (mg/g/min)


Rate constants for pseudo-second-order adsorption reaction (g/mg/min)


Boundary thickness (mg/g)


Standard change in free energy (kJ/mol)


Standard change in enthalpy (kJ/mol)


Standard change in entropy (kJ/K/mol)


Absolute temperature (K)


Distribution co-efficient for the adsorption


Intraparticle diffusion rate constant (mg/g/min1/2)


Universal gas constant (8.314 J/K/mol)



The authors acknowledge the Universiti Sains Malaysia for providing research facilities and Postdoctorate Fellowship to Dr. Mohammed Danish.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammed Danish
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Rokiah Hashim
    • 1
  • M. N. Mohamad Ibrahim
    • 2
  • Othman Sulaiman
    • 1
  1. 1.Bioresource Research Lab., Bioresource, Paper and Coatings Division, School of Industrial TechnologyUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia
  2. 2.Division of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia

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