The potential of linear vibration friction as an innovative means of producing increases in both surface density and surface hardness was explored. The influence of processing pressure and time on the degree of surface densification, surface hardness and surface elasticity was investigated. It was found that surface hardness (measured as Brinell hardness) was positively correlated with densification ratio. Furthermore, surface elasticity, that is the ability of the surface to recover elastically after indentation during the Brinell hardness test, could be increased by up to 33% depending on the degree of surface densification. The temperature rise due to friction was also studied. During processing, it was found that the temperature rise on both the radial and tangential surfaces was positively correlated with the processing pressure and time.
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Rautkari, L., Properzi, M., Pichelin, F. et al. Surface modification of wood using friction. Wood Sci Technol 43, 291–299 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00226-008-0227-0