Advertisement

Wood Science and Technology

, Volume 37, Issue 1, pp 39–46 | Cite as

Analysis of acetylated wood by electron microscopy

  • C. Sander
  • E. P. J. Beckers
  • H. Militz
  • W. van Veenendaal
Original

Abstract

The properties of acetylated solid wood were investigated earlier, in particular the anti-shrink efficiency and the resistance against decay. This study focuses on the possible changes and damage to the wood structure due to an acetylation process leading to weight per cent gains of up to 20%. Electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) was used to investigate the fine structure of acetylated beech, pine and spruce. Cell wall swelling was observed, but no evidence of damage could be seen as a result of the acetylation procedure. The fine structure of the wood tissue such as the pits and the thin parenchyma walls appeared untouched.

Keywords

Acetic Anhydride Wood Structure Solid Wood Resin Canal Fibre Saturation Point 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Jan van der Heijden (Wageningen) for his help with the SEM analysis and Anja Geitmann [Laboratory of Experimental Plant Morphology and Cell Biology (EPC), Wageningen University and Research Centre] for the preparation of samples for TEM analysis.

References

  1. Akitsu H, Norimoto M, Morooka T, Rowell RM (1993) Effect of humidity on vibrational properties of chemically modified wood. Wood Fiber Sci 25: 250–260Google Scholar
  2. Beckers EPJ, Militz H (1994) Acetylation of solid wood. Initial trials on lab and semi industrial scale. Second Pacific Rim Bio-Based Composites Symposium, Vancouver, Canada, 6–9 November. Wood Science Department, Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, pp 125–133Google Scholar
  3. Beckers EPJ, Militz H, Stevens M (1994) Resistance of acetylated wood in basidiomycetes, soft rot and blue stain. Document IRG/WP/94-40021, The International Research Group on Wood Preservation, IRG-Secretariat, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  4. Beckers EPJ, Militz H, Stevens M (1995) Acetylated solid wood laboratory durability test (part II) and field trials. Document IRG/WP/95-40048, The International Research Group on Wood Preservation, IRG-Secretariat, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  5. Chow P, Harp T, Meimban R, Youngquist JA, Rowell RM (1994) Biodegradation of acetylated southern pine and aspen composition board. Document IRG/WP 94-40020, International Research Group on Wood Preservation, IRG-Secretariat, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  6. Donaldson LA (1992) Lignin distribution during latewood formation in Pinus radiata D. Don. Int Assoc Wood Anat Bull 13:381–387Google Scholar
  7. Dreher WA, Goldstein IS, Cramer GR (1964) Mechanical properties of acetylated wood. Forest Prod J 14: 66–68Google Scholar
  8. Goethals P, Stevens M (1994) Dimensional stability and decay resistance of wood upon modification with some new type chemical reactants. Document IRG/WP/94-40028, International Research Group on Wood Preservation, IRG-Secretariat, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  9. Goldstein IS, Jeroski EB, Lund AE, Nielson JF, Weaver JW (1961) Acetylation of wood in lumber thickness. Forest Prod J 8:363–370Google Scholar
  10. Hon DNS (1996) Chemical modification of lignocellulosic materials. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Imamura Y, Nishimoto K (1987) Some aspects on resistance of acetylated wood against biodeterioration. Wood Res 74:33–44Google Scholar
  12. Kumar S (1994) Chemical modification of wood. Wood Fiber Sci 26:270–280Google Scholar
  13. Larsson P, Simonson R (1994) A study of strength, hardness and deformation of acetylated Scandinavian softwoods. Holz Roh Werkst 52:83–86Google Scholar
  14. Larsson P, Tillman AM (1989) Acetylation of lignocellulosic materials. Document IRG/WP/3516, The International Research Group on Wood Preservation, IRG-Secretariat, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  15. Liu HS, Liao KF, Peng SF (1994) Mechanical properties of acetylated wood. Forest Prod Ind 13:53–66Google Scholar
  16. Matejak M (1982) Über die Schwindung von Eichen-, Buchen- und Kiefernholz [On the shrinkage of oak-, beech- and pinewood]. Holzforsch Holzverwert 34:101–104 (in German)Google Scholar
  17. Militz H (1991) Die Verbesserung des Schwind- und Quellverhaltens und der Dauerhaftigkeit von Holz mittles Behandlung mit unkatalysiertem Essigsäureanhydrid [The improvement of shrinkage and swelling behaviour and durability of wood using uncatalysed acetic anhydride]. Holz Roh Werkst 49:147–152 (in German).Google Scholar
  18. Ramsden MJ, Blake FSR, Fey NJ (1997) The effect of acetylation on the mechanical properties, hydrophobicity, and dimensional stability of Pinus sylvestris. Wood Sci Technol 31:97–104Google Scholar
  19. Rowell RM (1975) Chemical modification of wood: advantages and disadvantages. Proc Am Wood-Preserv Assoc 71:41–51Google Scholar
  20. Rowell RM (1983) Chemical modification of wood. Forest Prod Abstr 6:363–381Google Scholar
  21. Rowell RM (1991) Changes in physical properties of wood and wood fiber resulting from chemical modification. International Symposium on Chemical Modification of Wood, Kyoto, Japan, 17–18 May. Wood Research institute, Kyoto University, pp 75–82Google Scholar
  22. Rowell RM, Ellis WD (1981) Bonding of isocyanates to wood. ACS Symp Ser 172:263–284Google Scholar
  23. Rowell RM, Plackett DV (1988) Dimensional stability of flakeboards made from acetylated Pinus radiata heartwood or sapwood flakes. N Z J Forestry Sci 18:124–131Google Scholar
  24. Rowell RM, Gutzmer DI, Sachs IB, Kinney RE (1976) Effects of alkylene oxide treatments on dimensional stability of wood. Wood Sci 9:51–54Google Scholar
  25. Rowell RM, Lichtenberg RS, Larsson P (1993) Stability of acetylated wood to environmental changes. Wood Fiber Sci 25:359–364Google Scholar
  26. Rowell RM, Simonson-R, Hess S, Plackett DV, Cronshaw D, Dunningham E (1994) Acetyl distribution in acetylated whole wood and reactivity of isolated wood cell-wall components to acetic anhydride. Wood Fiber Sci 26:11–18Google Scholar
  27. Spurr AR (1969) A low viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron microscopy. J Ultrastruct Res 26:31–43Google Scholar
  28. Stevens M, Parameswaran N (1981) Effects of formaldehyde-acid catalyzed reactions on wood ultrastructure. Wood Sci Technol 15:287–300Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Sander
    • 1
  • E. P. J. Beckers
    • 2
  • H. Militz
    • 3
  • W. van Veenendaal
    • 4
  1. 1.RINNTECHHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.SHR Timber ResearchWageningenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Institute of Wood Biology and TechnologyUniversity of GöttingenGöttingenGermany
  4. 4.Laboratory of Experimental Plant Morphology and Cell Biology (EPC)Wageningen University & Research CentreWageningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations