Lifestyle Factors Affecting Bone Ultrasonometry of the Calcaneus in Japanese Women
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Ultrasonometry is increasingly used to assess bone characteristics. A group of 1412 women with a mean age of 57 years attended a screening examination in a Japanese city. Seventy-four percent of participants were postmenopausal. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS), and Stiffness index (SI) of the calcaneus were measured; subjects also completed a questionnaire examining lifestyle factors; anthropometric data were recorded. Analysis showed that the strongest predictors of decreased BUA, SOS, and SI were increased age and menopausal status. Higher body mass index and current participation in exercise or sports were significant predictors of increased BUA, SOS, and SI in a multivariate model. Higher calcium intake predicted increased BUA (P= 0.004) and missing meals predicted a lower SOS (P= 0.019). This study suggests that dietary factors as well as physical activity influence bone characteristics assessed by QUS. QUS may be a suitable technique to assess the effect of lifestyle changes on bone.
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