Calcified Tissue International

, Volume 91, Issue 1, pp 40–49 | Cite as

Dietary Patterns in Relation to Bone Mineral Density Among Menopausal Iranian Women

  • Mohsen Karamati
  • Mahsa Jessri
  • Seyedeh-Elaheh Shariati-Bafghi
  • Bahram Rashidkhani
Original Research


The association of dietary patterns and bone health is not yet well known, and findings from the rare previous studies conducted on this issue are contradictory. We assessed the dietary patterns in relation to bone mineral density (BMD) in a sample of menopausal Iranian women. In this cross-sectional study, 160 menopausal women aged 50–85 were studied and their femoral neck and lumbar spine BMDs were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were assessed with a validated 168-item food frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were identified by a principal component factor analysis method. Overall, six dietary patterns emerged, two of which had a significant association with BMD. After adjusting for potential confounders, women who had higher scores for the first (high in high-fat dairy products, organ meats, red or processed meats and nonrefined cereals) and the second (high in French fries, mayonnaise, sweets and desserts and vegetable oils) dietary patterns we identified were more likely to have BMD below the median in the lumbar spine (odds ratio 2.29; 95 % confidence interval 1.05–4.96; p = 0.04) and the femoral neck (odds ratio 2.83, 95 % confidence interval 1.31–6.09; p < 0.01), respectively, compared to women with lower scores. Dietary patterns abundant in foods with high content of saturated fatty acids (similar to factor 1) or with low density of nutrients (similar to factor 2) are detrimental to bone health in menopausal Iranian women. These findings highlight the importance of proper food selection for maintaining bone health.


Bone mineral density DEXA Diet Dietary patterns Epidemiology Iran Menopause Osteoporosis 



We thank the participants for their enthusiastic support. We are grateful to the members of National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute for their kind collaboration. This work was supported by a grant from “National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute (WHO Collaborating Center)” of Shahid Behehshti University of Medical Sciences, Iran.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohsen Karamati
    • 1
  • Mahsa Jessri
    • 2
  • Seyedeh-Elaheh Shariati-Bafghi
    • 3
  • Bahram Rashidkhani
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute (WHO Collaborating Center)Shahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Human Nutrition Division, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Sciences and Alberta Institute of Human Nutrition, Edmonton Clinic Health AcademyUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  3. 3.Faculty of Public HealthShahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health ServicesYazdIran

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