Analysing a visual scene requires the brain to briefly keep in memory potentially relevant items of that scene and then direct attention to their locations for detailed processing. To reveal the neuronal basis of the underlying working memory and top-down attention processes, we trained macaques to match two patterns presented with a delay between them. As the above processes are likely to require communication between brain regions, and the parietal cortex is known to be involved in spatial attention, we simultaneously recorded neuronal activities from the interconnected parietal and middle temporal areas. We found that mnemonic information about features of the first pattern was retained in coherent oscillating activity between the two areas in high-frequency bands, followed by coherent activity in lower frequency bands mediating top-down attention on the relevant spatial location. Oscillations maintaining featural information also modulated activity of the cells of the parietal cortex that mediate attention. This could potentially enable transfer of information to organize top-down signals necessary for selective attention. Our results provide evidence in support of a two-stage model of visual attention where the first stage involves creating a saliency map representing a visual scene and at the second stage attentional feedback is provided to cortical areas involved in detailed analysis of the attended parts of a scene.
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We thank Dr. Ivan Pigarev for taking part in some of the early studies. We are grateful to Drs. Andrew Metha and Chris French for critical comments on the manuscript.
This work was supported by project grants (251600, 454676 and 628668) from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council to T.R.V. E.L. was partly supported by ARC Centre of Excellence in Integrative Brain Function.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interests or competing interests.
The study was conducted as per the guidelines of the National Health and Medical Research Council Australian Code of Practice for the Care and Use of Animals for Scientific Purposes and approved by the University of Melbourne Animal Experimentation Ethics Committee.
Communicated by Melvyn A. Goodale.
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Levichkina, E., Kermani, M., Saalmann, Y.B. et al. Dynamics of coherent activity between cortical areas defines a two-stage process of top-down attention. Exp Brain Res 239, 2767–2779 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-021-06166-w
- Visual attention
- Parietal cortex
- Mid-temporal cortex