Skip to main content

Testosterone administration in women increases the size of their peripersonal space

Abstract

Peripersonal space (PPS) is the space immediately surrounding the body, conceptualised as a sensory-motor interface between body and environment. PPS size differs between individuals and contexts, with intrapersonal traits and states, as well as social factors having a determining role on the size of PPS. Testosterone plays an important role in regulating social-motivational behaviour and is known to enhance dominance motivation in an implicit and unconscious manner. We investigated whether the dominance-enhancing effects of testosterone reflect as changes in the representation of PPS in a within-subjects testosterone administration study in women (N = 19). Participants performed a visuo-tactile integration task in a mixed-reality setup. Results indicated that the administration of testosterone caused a significant enlargement of participants’ PPS, suggesting that testosterone caused participants to implicitly appropriate a larger space as their own. These findings suggest that the dominance-enhancing effects of testosterone reflect at the level of sensory-motor processing in PPS.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Code availability

Not applicable.

Availability of data and material

Not applicable.

References

  1. Barrett FS, Robins RW, Janata P (2013) A brief form of the affective neuroscience personality scales. Psychol Assess 25(3):826

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Bassolino M, Finisguerra A, Canzoneri E, Serino A, Pozzo T (2015) Dissociating effect of upper limb non-use and overuse on space and body representations. Neuropsychologia 70:385–392

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Bausenhart KM, Di Luca M, Ulrich R (2018) Assessing duration discrimination: psychophysical methods and psychometric function analysis. In: Vatakis A, Balci F, Correa A, Di Luca M (eds) Timing and time perception: procedures, measures, and applications. Brill, pp 52–78. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004280205_004

  4. Bell MR, Sisk CL (2013) Dopamine mediates testosterone-induced social reward in male Syrian hamsters. Endocrinology 154(3):1225–1234

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bianchi VE (2019) The anti-inflammatory effects of testosterone. J Endocr Soc 3(1):91–107

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Boksem MA, Mehta PH, Van den Bergh B, van Son V, Trautmann ST, Roelofs K, Sanfey AG (2013) Testosterone inhibits trust but promotes reciprocity. Psychol Sci 24(11):2306–2314

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Bos PA, Terburg D, van Honk J (2010) Testosterone decreases trust in socially naïve humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(22):9991–9995. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0911700107

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Bos PA, van Honk J, Ramsey NF, Stein DJ, Hermans EJ (2013) Testosterone administration in women increases amygdala responses to fearful and happy faces. Psychoneuroendocrinology 38(6):808–817

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Brozzoli C, Cardinali L, Pavani F, Farnè A (2010) Action-specific remapping of peripersonal space. Neuropsychologia 48(3):796–802. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.10.009

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Canzoneri E, Ubaldi S, Rastelli V, Finisguerra A, Bassolino M, Serino A (2013) Tool-use reshapes the boundaries of body and peripersonal space representations. Exp Brain Res 228(1):25–42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-013-3532-2

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Carré JM, Archer J (2018) Testosterone and human behavior: the role of individual and contextual variables. Curr Opin Psychol 19:149–153

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Casto KV, Edwards DA (2016) Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition. Horm Behav 82:21–37

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Davis KL, Panksepp J (2011) The brain’s emotional foundations of human personality and the affective neuroscience personality scales. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 35(9):1946–1958

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Davis KL, Panksepp J (2018) The emotional foundations of personality: a neurobiological and evolutionary approach. WW Norton & Company, New York

    Google Scholar 

  15. de Haan AM, Smit M, Van der Stigchel S, Dijkerman HC (2016) Approaching threat modulates visuotactile interactions in peripersonal space. Exp Brain Res 234(7):1875–1884

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. di Pellegrino G, Làdavas E (2015) Peripersonal space in the brain. Neuropsychologia 66:126–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.11.011

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Duhamel J-R, Colby CL, Goldberg ME (1998) Ventral intraparietal area of the macaque: congruent visual and somatic response properties. J Neurophysiol 79(1):126–136

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Dunn BD, Stefanovitch I, Evans D, Oliver C, Hawkins A, Dalgleish T (2010) Can you feel the beat? Interoceptive awareness is an interactive function of anxiety-and depression-specific symptom dimensions. Behav Res Ther 48(11):1133–1138

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Eisenegger C, Haushofer J, Fehr E (2011) The role of testosterone in social interaction. Trends Cogn Sci 15(6):263–271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2011.04.008

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Enter D, Spinhoven P, Roelofs K (2014) Alleviating social avoidance: effects of single dose testosterone administration on approach–avoidance action. Horm Behav 65(4):351–354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2014.02.001

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Enter D, Terburg D, Harrewijn A, Spinhoven P, Roelofs K (2016) Single dose testosterone administration alleviates gaze avoidance in women with social anxiety disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology 63:26–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.09.008

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Fogassi L, Gallese V, Fadiga L, Luppino G, Matelli M, Rizzolatti G (1996) Coding of peripersonal space in inferior premotor cortex (area F4). J Neurophysiol 76(1):141–157

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Geir P, Selsbakk JM, Theresa W, Sigmund K (2014) Testing different versions of the affective neuroscience personality scales in a clinical sample. PLoS ONE 9(10):e109394

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Graziano M, Cooke D (2006) Parieto–frontal interactions, personal space, and defensive behavior. Neuropsychologia 44(13):2621–2635. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.09.009

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Guterstam A, Szczotka J, Zeberg H, Ehrsson HH (2018) Tool use changes the spatial extension of the magnetic touch illusion. J Exp Psychol Gen 147(2):298

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Hermans EJ, Putman P, Baas JM, Koppeschaar HP, van Honk J (2006a) A single administration of testosterone reduces fear-potentiated startle in humans. Biol Psychiatry 59(9):872–874. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.11.015

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Hermans EJ, Putman P, van Honk J (2006b) Testosterone administration reduces empathetic behavior: a facial mimicry study. Psychoneuroendocrinology 31(7):859–866. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2006.04.002

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Hermans EJ, Putman P, Baas JM, Gecks NM, Kenemans JL, van Honk J (2007) Exogenous testosterone attenuates the integrated central stress response in healthy young women. Psychoneuroendocrinology 32(8–10):1052–1061

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Hobeika L, Taffou M, Carpentier T, Warusfel O, Viaud-Delmon I (2020) Capturing the dynamics of peripersonal space by integrating expectancy effects and sound propagation properties. J Neurosci Methods 332:108534

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Holmes NP, Martin D, Mitchell W, Noorani Z, Thorne A (2020) Do sounds near the hand facilitate tactile reaction times? Four experiments and a meta-analysis provide mixed support and suggest a small effect size. Exp Brain Res 1–15

  31. Iachini T, Ruggiero G, Ruotolo F, di Cola AS, Senese VP (2015) The influence of anxiety and personality factors on comfort and reachability space: a correlational study. Cogn Process 16(1):255–258. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10339-015-0717-6

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Iachini T, Coello Y, Frassinetti F, Senese VP, Galante F, Ruggiero G (2016) Peripersonal and interpersonal space in virtual and real environments: effects of gender and age. J Environ Psychol 45:154–164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2016.01.004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Iriki A, Tanaka M, Iwamura Y (1996) Coding of modified body schema during tool use by macaque postcentral neurones. NeuroReport 7(14):2325–2330

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Ishida H, Nakajima K, Inase M, Murata A (2010) Shared mapping of own and others’ bodies in visuotactile bimodal area of monkey parietal cortex. J Cogn Neurosci 22(1):83–96. https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2009.21185

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Kandula M, Van der Stoep N, Hofman D, Dijkerman HC (2017) On the contribution of overt tactile expectations to visuo-tactile interactions within the peripersonal space. Exp Brain Res 235(8):2511–2522. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-017-4965-9

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  36. Maister L, Cardini F, Zamariola G, Serino A, Tsakiris M (2015) Your place or mine: shared sensory experiences elicit a remapping of peripersonal space. Neuropsychologia 70:455–461. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.10.027

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Makin TR, Holmes NP, Ehrsson HH (2008) On the other hand: dummy hands and peripersonal space. Behav Brain Res 191(1):1–10

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Mazur A, Booth A (1998) Testosterone and dominance in men. Behav Brain Sci 21(3):353. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X98001228

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Miller J, Ulrich R (2001) On the analysis of psychometric functions: the Spearman–Kärber method. Percept Psychophys 63(8):1399–1420

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Montoya ER, Terburg D, Bos PA, Will G-J, Buskens V, Raub W, van Honk J (2013) Testosterone administration modulates moral judgments depending on second-to-fourth digit ratio. Psychoneuroendocrinology 38(8):1362–1369

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Moseley GL, Olthof N, Venema A, Don S, Wijers M, Gallace A, Spence C (2008) Psychologically induced cooling of a specific body part caused by the illusory ownership of an artificial counterpart. Proc Natl Acad Sci 105(35):13169–13173

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Noel JP, Pfeiffer C, Blanke O, Serino A (2015a) Peripersonal space as the space of the bodily self. Cognition 144:49–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2015.07.012

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  43. Noel J-P, Grivaz P, Marmaroli P, Lissek H, Blanke O, Serino A (2015b) Full body action remapping of peripersonal space: the case of walking. Neuropsychologia 70:375–384. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.08.030

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Noel J-P, Blanke O, Magosso E, Serino A (2018a) Neural adaptation accounts for the dynamic resizing of peripersonal space: evidence from a psychophysical–computational approach. J Neurophysiol 119(6):2307–2333. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00652.2017

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  45. Noel JP, Blanke O, Serino A (2018b) From multisensory integration in peripersonal space to bodily self-consciousness: from statistical regularities to statistical inference. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1426(1):146–165. https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.13867

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Noel J-P, Park H-D, Pasqualini I, Lissek H, Wallace M, Blanke O, Serino A (2018c) Audio-visual sensory deprivation degrades visuo-tactile peri-personal space. Conscious Cogn 61:61–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2018.04.001

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. Noel J-P, Samad M, Doxon A, Clark J, Keller S, Di Luca M (2018d) Peri-personal space as a prior in coupling visual and proprioceptive signals. Sci Rep 8(1):15819. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-33961-3

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  48. Noel J-P, Chatelle C, Perdikis S, Jöhr J, Da Silva ML, Ryvlin P, Serino A (2019) Peri-personal space encoding in patients with disorders of consciousness and cognitive-motor dissociation. Neuroimage Clin 24:101940

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Noel J-P, Bertoni T, Terrebonne E, Pellencin E, Herbelin B, Cascio C, Serino A (2020) Rapid recalibration of peri-personal space: psychophysical, electrophysiological, and neural network modeling evidence. Cereb Cortex. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa103

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  50. Patané I, Cardinali L, Salemme R, Pavani F, Farnè A, Brozzoli C (2019) Action planning modulates peripersonal space. J Cogn Neurosci 31(8):1141–1154

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Pellencin E, Paladino MP, Herbelin B, Serino A (2018) Social perception of others shapes one’s own multisensory peripersonal space. Cortex 104:163–179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2017.08.033

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. Pfeiffer C, Noel J-P, Serino A, Blanke O (2018) Vestibular modulation of peripersonal space boundaries. Eur J Neurosci 47(7):800–811. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejn.13872

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. Rizzolatti G, Scandolara C, Matelli M, Gentilucci M (1981a) Afferent properties of periarcuate neurons in macaque monkeys. I. Somatosensory responses. Behav Brain Res 2(2):125–146

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Rizzolatti G, Scandolara C, Matelli M, Gentilucci M (1981b) Afferent properties of periarcuate neurons in macaque monkeys. II. Visual responses. Behav Brain Res 2(2):147–163

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Salomon R, Noel J-P, Łukowska M, Faivre N, Metzinger T, Serino A, Blanke O (2017) Unconscious integration of multisensory bodily inputs in the peripersonal space shapes bodily self-consciousness. Cognition 166:174–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2017.05.028

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. Sambo CF, Iannetti GD (2013) Better safe than sorry? the safety margin surrounding the body is increased by anxiety. J Neurosci 33(35):14225–14230. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0706-13.2013

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  57. Schutter DJ, Honk JV (2004) Decoupling of midfrontal delta–beta oscillations after testosterone administration. Int J Psychophysiol 53:71–73

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Serino A (2019a) Peripersonal space (PPS) as a multisensory interface between the individual and the environment, defining the space of the self. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.01.016

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. Serino A (2019b) Peripersonal space (PPS) as a multisensory interface between the individual and the environment, defining the space of the self. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 99:138–159

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Serino A, Bassolino M, Farnè A, Làdavas E (2007) Extended multisensory space in blind cane users. Psychol Sci 18(7):642–648. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01952.x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Serino A, Canzoneri E, Marzolla M, di Pellegrino G, Magosso E (2015a) Extending peripersonal space representation without tool-use: evidence from a combined behavioral-computational approach. Front Behav Neurosci. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00004

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  62. Serino A, Noel JP, Galli G, Canzoneri E, Marmaroli P, Lissek H, Blanke O (2015b) Body part-centered and full body-centered peripersonal space representations. Sci Rep 5:18603. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep18603

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  63. Serino A, Noel JP, Mange R, Canzoneri E, Pellencin E, Ruiz JB, Herbelin B (2018) Peripersonal space: an index of multisensory body-environment interactions in real, virtual, and mixed realities. Front ICT 4:31. https://doi.org/10.3389/fict.2017.00031

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Sinervo B, Miles DB, Frankino WA, Klukowski M, DeNardo DF (2000) Testosterone, endurance, and Darwinian fitness: natural and sexual selection on the physiological bases of alternative male behaviors in side-blotched lizards. Horm Behav 38(4):222–233

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Sinnesael M, Boonen S, Claessens F, Gielen E, Vanderschueren D (2011) Testosterone and the male skeleton: a dual mode of action. J Osteoporos 2011:240328. https://doi.org/10.4061/2011/240328

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  66. Spaccasassi C, Maravita A (2020) Peripersonal space is diversely sensitive to a temporary vs permanent state of anxiety. Cognition 195:104133

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene RE (1970) Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto

    Google Scholar 

  68. Stanton SJ, Schultheiss OC (2009) The hormonal correlates of implicit power motivation. J Res Pers 43(5):942–949. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2009.04.001

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  69. Stone KD, Kandula M, Keizer A, Dijkerman HC (2018) Peripersonal space boundaries around the lower limbs. Exp Brain Res 236(1):161–173

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Taffou M, Viaud-Delmon I (2014) Cynophobic fear adaptively extends peri-personal space. Front Psychiatry 5:122. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00122

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  71. Teneggi C, Canzoneri E, di Pellegrino G, Serino A (2013) Social modulation of peripersonal space boundaries. Curr Biol 23(5):406–411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.01.043

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. Teramoto W (2018) A behavioral approach to shared mapping of peripersonal space between oneself and others. Sci Rep 8(1):5432. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-23815-3

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  73. Terburg D, van Honk J (2013) Approach–avoidance versus dominance–submissiveness: a multilevel neural framework on how testosterone promotes social status. Emot Rev 5(3):296–302. https://doi.org/10.1177/1754073913477510

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Terburg D, Aarts H, van Honk J (2012) Testosterone affects gaze aversion from angry faces outside of conscious awareness. Psychol Sci (0956-7976) 23(5):459–463. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611433336

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Terburg D, Syal S, Rosenberger LA, Heany SJ, Stein DJ, Honk J, v. (2016) Testosterone abolishes implicit subordination in social anxiety. Psychoneuroendocrinology 72:205–211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.07.203

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. Tuiten A, Van Honk J, Koppeschaar H, Bernaards C, Thijssen J, Verbaten R (2000) Time course of effects of testosterone administration on sexual arousal in women. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57(2):149–153. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.57.2.149

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  77. van der Westhuizen D, Solms M (2015) Social dominance and the affective neuroscience personality scales. Conscious Cogn 33:90–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2014.12.005

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  78. van der Westhuizen D, Moore J, Solms M, van Honk J (2017) Testosterone facilitates the sense of agency. Conscious Cogn 56:58–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2017.10.005

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  79. van der Westhuizen D, Page T, Solms M, van Honk J (2019) The territory of my body: testosterone prevents limb cooling in the rubber hand illusion. Multisens Res 1(aop):1–27

    Google Scholar 

  80. van Honk J, Tuiten A (2001) A single administration of testosterone induces cardiac accelerative responses to angry faces in healthy young women. Behav Neurosci 115(1):238. https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7044.115.1.238

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  81. van Honk J, Tuiten A, Verbaten R, van den Hout M, Koppeschaar H, Thijssen J, de Haan E (1999) Correlations among salivary testosterone, mood, and selective attention to threat in humans. Horm Behav 36(1):17–24. https://doi.org/10.1006/hbeh.1999.1521

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  82. van Honk J, Peper JS, Schutter DJLG (2005) Testosterone reduces unconscious fear but not consciously experienced anxiety: implications for the disorders of fear and anxiety. Biol Psychiatry 58(3):218–225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.04.003

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  83. van Honk J, Schutter DJLG (2007) Testosterone reduces conscious detection of signals serving social correction: implications for antisocial behavior. Psychol Sci 18(8):663–667. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01955.x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  84. van Honk J, Schutter DJ, Bos PA, Kruijt A-W, Lentjes EG, Baron-Cohen S (2011) Testosterone administration impairs cognitive empathy in women depending on second-to-fourth digit ratio. Proc Natl Acad Sci. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1011891108

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  85. Vergallito A, Gerfo EL, Varoli E, Brambilla M, Sacchi S, Anzani S, Lauro LR (2019) Positive self-perception and corticospinal excitability: recalling positive behavior expands peripersonal space boundaries. Neuropsychologia 135:107224

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Wagels L, Radke S, Goerlich KS, Habel U, Votinov M (2017) Exogenous testosterone decreases men’s personal distance in a social threat context. Horm Behav 90:75–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2017.03.001

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  87. Wang C, Swerdloff RS, Iranmanesh A, Dobs A, Snyder PJ, Cunningham G, Testosterone Gel Study Group, N (2000) Transdermal testosterone gel improves sexual function, mood, muscle strength, and body composition parameters in hypogonadal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85(8):2839–2853

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  88. Wirth MM, Schultheiss OC (2007) Basal testosterone moderates responses to anger faces in humans. Physiol Behav 90(2):496–505. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2006.10.016

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  89. Wright ND, Bahrami B, Johnson E, Malta GD, Rees G, Frith CD, Dolan RJ (2012) Testosterone disrupts human collaboration by increasing egocentric choices. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 279(1736):2275–2280. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2011.2523

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

CJM received support from the University of Cape Town and the Ernst & Ethel Erickson Trust.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Catherine Masson.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethics approval

This research involved human participants. The study was approved by the local ethics committees—the University of Cape Town (UCT) Psychology Department and the UCT Health Sciences Human Research Ethics Committee. The study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki.

Consent to participate

All participants gave informed written consent to take part in the study.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Communicated by Francesca Frassinetti.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Masson, C., van der Westhuizen, D., Noel, JP. et al. Testosterone administration in women increases the size of their peripersonal space. Exp Brain Res 239, 1639–1649 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-021-06080-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Visuo-tactile
  • Hormones
  • Bodily self-consciousness
  • Multisensory integration
  • Social dominance