Individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have deficits in reach-to-grasp (RTG) execution and visuospatial processing which may be a result of dopamine deficiency in two brain regions: primary motor cortex (M1) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We hypothesized that improvement following M1 stimulation would be the result of a direct impact on motor execution; whereas, DLPFC stimulation would improve the role of DLPFC in visuospatial processing. The aim of pilot study was to investigate the effects of HF-rTMS on RTG performance by stimulating either M1 or DLPFC. Thirty individuals with PD participated (H&Y stages I–III). All of them were more affected on the right side. Participants were allocated into three groups. The DLPFC group received HF-rTMS over left DLPFC; while, the M1 group received HF-rTMS over left M1 of extensor digitorum communis representational area. The control group received HF-rTMS over the vertex. Before and immediately post HF-rTMS, right-hand RTG performance was measured under no barrier and barrier conditions. Additionally, TMS measures including motor-evoked-potential (MEP) amplitude and cortical silent period (CSP) were determined to verify the effects of HF-rTMS. For the results, there were no significant differences among the three groups. However, only the M1 group showed a significant decrease in movement time immediately after HF-rTMS for a barrier condition. Moreover, the M1 group showed a near-significant increase in hand opening and transport velocity. As for the DLPFC group, there was a near-significant increase in temporal transport-grasp coordination and a significant increase in velocity. Increased MEP amplitudes and a significantly longer CSP in the M1 and DLPFC groups confirmed the effects of HF-rTMS. Regarding non-significant results among the three groups, it is still inconclusive whether there were different effects of the rTMS on the two stimulation areas. This is a preliminary study demonstrating that HF-rTMS to M1 may improve RTG execution; whereas, HF-rTMS to DLPFC may improve visuospatial processing demands of RTG.
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This study was supported by Faculty of Physical Therapy and Faculty of Graduate Studies, Mahidol University. In addition, financial support from the Thailand Research Fund through the Royal Golden Jubilee PhD Program (Grant no. PHD/0088/2557 to JT and JT) is gratefully acknowledged.
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Communicated by Winston D. Byblow.
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Thanakamchokchai, J., Tretriluxana, J., Pakaprot, N. et al. Effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on reach-to-grasp performance in individuals with Parkinson’s disease: a preliminary study. Exp Brain Res 238, 1827–1837 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-020-05843-6
- Brain stimulation
- Parkinson’s disease
- Reach-to-grasp performance