Skip to main content

Grip force preparation for collisions

Abstract

Grip force has been studied widely in a variety of interaction and movement tasks, however, not much is known about the timing of the grip force control in preparation for interaction with objects. For example, it is unknown whether and how the temporal preparation for a collision is related to (the prediction of) the impact load. To study this question, we examined the anticipative timing of the grip force in preparation for impact loads. We designed a collision task with different types of load forces in a controlled virtual environment. Participants interacted with a robotic device (KINARM, BKIN Technologies, Kingston) whose handles were equipped with force sensors which the participants held in precision grip. Representations of the hand and objects were visually projected on a virtual reality display and forces were applied onto the participant’s hand to simulate a collision with the virtual objects. The collisions were alternating between the two hands to allow transfer and learning between the hands. The results show that there is immediate transfer of object information between the two hands, since the grip force levels are (almost) fully adjusted after one collision with the opposite hand. The results also show that the grip force levels are nicely adjusted based on the mass and stiffness of the object. Surprisingly, the temporal onset of the grip force build up did not depend on the impact load, so that participants avoid slippage by adjusting the other grip force characteristics (e.g., grip force level and rate of change), therefore considering these self-imposed timing constraints. With the use of catch trials, for which no impact occurred, we further analyzed the temporal profile of the grip force. The catch trial data showed that the timing of the grip force peak is also independent of the impact load and its timing, which suggests a time-locked planning of the complete grip force profile.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Bares M, Lungu OV, Liu T, Waechter T, Gomez CM, Ashe J (2011) The neural substrate of predictive motor timing in spinocerebellar ataxia. Cerebellum 10:233–244

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Bleyenheuft Y, Lefevre P, Thonnard J-L (2009) Predictive mechanisms control grip force after impact in self-triggered perturbations. J Mot Behav 41:411–417

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Bootsma RJ, van Wieringen PC (1990) Timing an attacking forehand drive in table tennis. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 16:21

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Brenner E, Smeets JB (2009) Sources of variability in interceptive movements. Exp Brain Res 195:117–133

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Brenner E, Smeets JB (2011) Continuous visual control of interception. Hum Mov Sci 30:475–494

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Brenner E, Smeets JB (2015) How people achieve their amazing temporal precision in interception. J Vis 15:8

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Brenner E, Smeets JB, de Lussanet MH (1998) Hitting moving targets continuous control of the acceleration of the hand on the basis of the target’s velocity. Exp Brain Res 122:467–474

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Delevoye-Turrell Y, Giersch A, Danion J-M (2003) Abnormal sequencing of motor actions in patients with schizophrenia: evidence from grip force adjustments during object manipulation. Am J Psychiatry 160:134–141

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Flanagan JR, Tresilian JR (1994) Grip-load force coupling: a general control strategy for transporting objects. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 20:944

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Flanagan JR, Wing AM (1993) Modulation of grip force with load force during point-to-point arm movements. Exp Brain Res 95:131–143

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Flanagan JR, Wing AM (1997) The role of internal models in motion planning and control: evidence from grip force adjustments during movements of hand-held loads. J Neurosci 17:1519–1528

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. Gibson JJ (2014) The ecological approach to visual perception, classic edn. Psychology Press, London

    Book  Google Scholar 

  13. Johansson R, Westling G (1988) Programmed and triggered actions to rapid load changes during precision grip. Exp Brain Res 71:72–86

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Kietzman ML, Sutton S (1968) The interpretation of two-pulse measures of temporal resolution in vision. Vis Res 8:287–302

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Lefèvre P, Bottemanne I, Roucoux A (1992) Experimental study and modeling of vestibulo-ocular reflex modulation during large shifts of gaze in humans. Exp Brain Res 91:496–508

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Lucas M, Chaves F, Teixeira S, Carvalho D, Peressutti C, Bittencourt J, Velasques B, Menéndez-González M, Cagy M, Piedade R (2013) Time perception impairs sensory-motor integration in Parkinson’s disease. Int Arch Med 6:39

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  17. McIntyre J, Zago M, Berthoz A, Lacquaniti F (2001) Does the brain model Newton’s laws? Nat Neurosci 4(7):693

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Mcleod P, Jenkins S (1991) Timing accuracy and decision time in high-speed ball games. Int J Sport Psychol 22:279–295

    Google Scholar 

  19. Nowak DA, Hermsdörfer J (2006) Predictive and reactive control of grasping forces: on the role of the basal ganglia and sensory feedback. Exp Brain Res 173:650–660

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Nowak DA, Glasauer S, Hermsdörfer J (2004) How predictive is grip force control in the complete absence of somatosensory feedback? Brain 127:182–192

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Regan D (1992) Visual judgements and misjudgements in cricket, and the art of flight. Perception 21:91–115

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Ruddy KL, Carson RG (2013) Neural pathways mediating cross education of motor function. Front Hum Neurosci 7:397

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  23. Schubotz RI, Friederici AD, Von Cramon DY (2000) Time perception and motor timing: a common cortical and subcortical basis revealed by fMRI. Neuroimage 11:1–12

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Serrien D, Kaluzny P, Wicki U, Wiesendanger M (1999) Grip force adjustments induced by predictable load perturbations during a manipulative task. Exp Brain Res 124:100–106

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Sober SJ, Sponberg S, Nemenman I, Ting LH (2018) Millisecond spike timing codes for motor control. Trends Neurosci 41:644–648

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  26. Srivastava KH, Holmes CM, Vellema M, Pack AR, Elemans CP, Nemenman I, Sober SJ (2017) Motor control by precisely timed spike patterns. Proc Natl Acad Sci 114:1171–1176

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Thompson P (1982) Perceived rate of movement depends on contrast. Vis Res 22:377–380

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Turrell YN, Li F-X, Wing A (1999) Grip force dynamics in the approach to a collision. Exp Brain Res 128:86–91

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Valera EM, Spencer RM, Zeffiro TA, Makris N, Spencer TJ, Faraone SV, Biederman J, Seidman LJ (2010) Neural substrates of impaired sensorimotor timing in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiat 68:359–367

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. White O, Thonnard J-L, Wing A, Bracewell R, Diedrichsen J, Lefèvre P (2011) Grip force regulates hand impedance to optimize object stability in high impact loads. Neuroscience 189:269–276

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Laurane Guiot, for her help to collect the data and design the protocol, as well as the participants of this study for their kind participation in this time- and energy-consuming experiment. This research was supported by a Rubicon Grant (446-17-003) from the Netherlands Organization of Scientific Research (NWO) (to IAK), by a Grant from the European Space Agency, ARC (Actions de Recherche Concertée), Prodex, and IAP VII/19 DYSCO (BELSPO, Belgian Federal Government).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Philippe Lefèvre.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kuling, I.A., Salmen, F. & Lefèvre, P. Grip force preparation for collisions. Exp Brain Res 237, 2585–2594 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05606-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Grip force
  • Timing
  • Motor planning
  • Anticipation
  • Collision