Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 236, Issue 4, pp 1161–1179 | Cite as

Does hearing aid use affect audiovisual integration in mild hearing impairment?

  • Anja Gieseler
  • Maike A. S. Tahden
  • Christiane M. Thiel
  • Hans Colonius
Research Article


There is converging evidence for altered audiovisual integration abilities in hearing-impaired individuals and those with profound hearing loss who are provided with cochlear implants, compared to normal-hearing adults. Still, little is known on the effects of hearing aid use on audiovisual integration in mild hearing loss, although this constitutes one of the most prevalent conditions in the elderly and, yet, often remains untreated in its early stages. This study investigated differences in the strength of audiovisual integration between elderly hearing aid users and those with the same degree of mild hearing loss who were not using hearing aids, the non-users, by measuring their susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion. We also explored the corresponding window of integration by varying the stimulus onset asynchronies. To examine general group differences that are not attributable to specific hearing aid settings but rather reflect overall changes associated with habitual hearing aid use, the group of hearing aid users was tested unaided while individually controlling for audibility. We found greater audiovisual integration together with a wider window of integration in hearing aid users compared to their age-matched untreated peers. Signal detection analyses indicate that a change in perceptual sensitivity as well as in bias may underlie the observed effects. Our results and comparisons with other studies in normal-hearing older adults suggest that both mild hearing impairment and hearing aid use seem to affect audiovisual integration, possibly in the sense that hearing aid use may reverse the effects of hearing loss on audiovisual integration. We suggest that these findings may be particularly important for auditory rehabilitation and call for a longitudinal study.


Flash illusion Fission Window of integration Multisensory integration Hearing loss Aging 



The authors would like to thank the Hörzentrum Oldenburg GmbH for data acquisition. Particularly, we acknowledge Kirsten C. Wagener, Matthias Vormann, Michael Schulte, and Niklas Grunewald for their support and helpful comments. We also thank Ladan Shams for the suggestions regarding the signal detection theory analysis. Furthermore, we would like to thank the reviewers for their valuable comments, effort, and time.

Author contributions

AG and MT prepared the study. Data acquisition was conducted by the Hörzentrum Oldenburg GmbH. AG conceptualized the research question, analyzed the data, interpreted the results, wrote the manuscript, and prepared the figures and tables. CT and HC supervised the work. MT, CT, and HC critically reviewed and significantly contributed to the manuscript. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript for publication. All authors agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work and in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.


This work was supported by the DFG Cluster of Excellence EXC 1077/1 “Hearing4all”.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in this study were approved by the institutional review board of the University of Oldenburg and in accordance with the ethical standards of with the Declaration of Helsinki.

Informed consent

All participants gave their written informed consent prior to the study.

Supplementary material

221_2018_5206_MOESM1_ESM.docx (18 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 18 KB)


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cluster of Excellence ‘Hearing4all’University of OldenburgOldenburgGermany
  2. 2.Cognitive Psychology Lab, Department of PsychologyUniversity of OldenburgOldenburgGermany
  3. 3.Biological Psychology Lab, Department of PsychologyUniversity of OldenburgOldenburgGermany

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