Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 235, Issue 3, pp 889–901 | Cite as

The virtual reality head-mounted display Oculus Rift induces motion sickness and is sexist in its effects

  • Justin Munafo
  • Meg Diedrick
  • Thomas A. StoffregenEmail author
Research Article


Anecdotal reports suggest that motion sickness may occur among users of contemporary, consumer-oriented head-mounted display systems and that women may be at greater risk. We evaluated the nauseogenic properties of one such system, the Oculus Rift. The head-mounted unit included motion sensors that were sensitive to users’ head movements, such that head movements could be used as control inputs to the device. In two experiments, seated participants played one of two virtual reality games for up to 15 min. In Experiment 1, 22% of participants reported motion sickness, and the difference in incidence between men and women was not significant. In Experiment 2, motion sickness was reported by 56% of participants, and incidence among women (77.78%) was significantly greater than among men (33.33%). Before participants were exposed to the head-mounted display system, we recorded their standing body sway during the performance of simple visual tasks. In both experiments, patterns of pre-exposure body sway differed between participants who (later) reported motion sickness and those who did not. In Experiment 2, sex differences in susceptibility to motion sickness were preceded by sex differences in body sway. These postural effects confirm a prediction of the postural instability theory of motion sickness. The results indicate that users of contemporary head-mounted display systems are at significant risk of motion sickness and that in relation to motion sickness these systems may be sexist in their effects.


Motion sickness Posture Sex differences Virtual environments 



We offer our grateful thanks to Bernd Kreimeier, for his support and for the loan of the DK-2, to Zachary Pohlkamp, for assistance with data collection, and to Shotah D. Stoffregen, for assistance in evaluating and selecting experimental stimuli. Meg Diedrick’s participation was supported by an award from the Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program. Justin Munafo’s participation was supported by a fellowship from the Diversity of Views and Experiences (DOVE) Program.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Justin Munafo
    • 1
  • Meg Diedrick
    • 1
  • Thomas A. Stoffregen
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.University of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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