Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 164, Issue 3, pp 357–364 | Cite as

Localization of the human female breast in primary somatosensory cortex

  • Yvonne Rothemund
  • Michael Schaefer
  • Sabine M. Grüsser
  • Herta Flor
Research Article

Abstract

Rationale: Despite an extensive body of research on the topography of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) little is known about the representation of the trunk. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the representation of the breast in S1 in human females. Results: The representation of the human breast in primary somatosensory cortex was determined in ten healthy female subjects. Non-painful electrical stimulation of the mammilla (Th4 dermatome), groin (L1 dermatome) and the first digit of both sides of the body activated cutaneous receptors and thus elicited somatosensory evoked potentials. The representation of these body parts in primary somatosensory cortex (S1) was determined using neuroelectric source imaging. Equivalent current dipole localizations were overlaid with individual structural magnetic resonance images to account for individual cortical differences. The breast representation was localized between the representation of the groin and the first digit. In the medial–lateral direction the representation of the breast was approximately 15 mm lateral of the longitudinal fissure in the contralateral hemisphere. Source localizations were stable across subjects. However, one subject showed ipsilateral representation of the breast, which might be related to bilateral receptive fields of the ventral body midline representation. This study confirms the Penfield and Rasmussen (1950) invasive data by use of noninvasive source imaging.

Keywords

EEG Trunk representation Electrical stimulation Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) Source localization 

References

  1. Baumgartner C, Doppelbauer A, Sutherling WW, Lindinger G, Levesque MF, Aull S, Zeitlhofer J, Deecke L (1993) Somatotopy of human hand somatosensory cortex as studied in scalp EEG. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 88:271–279Google Scholar
  2. Baumgartner U, Vogel H, Ellrich J, Gawehn J, Stoeter P, Treede RD (1998) Brain electrical source analysis of primary cortical components of the tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potential using regional sources. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 108:588–599Google Scholar
  3. Brunia CH, Van den Bosch WE (1984) Movement-related slow potentials. I. A contrast between finger and foot movements in right-handed subjects. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 57:515–527CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Conti F, Fabri M, Manzoni T (1986) Bilateral receptive fields and callosal connectivity of the body midline representation in the first somatosensory area of primates. Somatosens Res 3:273–289Google Scholar
  5. Elbert T, Flor H, Birbaumer N, Knecht S, Hampson S, Larbig W, Taub E (1994) Extensive reorganization of the somatosensory cortex in adult humans after nervous system injury. Neuroreport 5:2593–2597Google Scholar
  6. Felleman DJ, Nelson RJ, Sur M, Kaas JH (1983) Representation of the body surface in areas 3b and 1 of postcentral parietal cortex of cebus monkeys. Brain Res 268:15–26Google Scholar
  7. Forss N, Salmelin R, Hari R (1994) Comparison of somatosensory evoked fields to airpuff and electric stimuli. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 92:510–517Google Scholar
  8. Gallen CC, Schwartz B, Rieke K, Pantev C, Sobel D, Hirschkoff E, Bloom FE (1994) Intrasubject reliability and validity of somatosensory source localization using a large array biomagnetometer. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 90:145–156Google Scholar
  9. Hari R, Karhu J, Hämäläinen M, Knuutila J, Salonen O, Sams M, Vilkman V (1993) Functional organization of the human first and second somatosensory cortices: a neuromagnetic study. Eur J Neurosci 5:724–734Google Scholar
  10. Hari R, Nagamine R, Nishitani N, Mikuni N, Sato T, Tarkiainen A, Shibasaki H (1996) Time-varying activation of different cytoarchitectonic areas of the human S1 cortex after tibial nerve stimulation. Neuroimage 4:111–118Google Scholar
  11. Hashimoto I, Gatayama T, Yoshikawa K, Sasaki M (1992) Somatosensory evoked potential correlates of psychophysical magnitude estimations for air-puff stimulation of the face in man. Exp Brain Res 88:639–644Google Scholar
  12. Itomi K, Kakigi R, Maeda K, Hoshiyama M (2000) Dermatome versus homunculus; detailed topography of the primary somatosensory cortex following trunk stimulation. Clin Neurophysiol 111:405–412Google Scholar
  13. Leahy RM, Mosher JC, Spencer ME, Huang MX, Lewine JD (1998) A study of dipole localization accuracy for MEG and EEG using a human skull phantom. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 107:159–173Google Scholar
  14. McCarthy G, Allison T, Spencer DD (1993) Localization of the face area of human sensorimotor cortex by intracranial recording of somatosensory evoked potentials. J Neurosurg 79:874–884Google Scholar
  15. Mosher JC, Leahy RM (1998) Recursive MUSIC: A framework for EEG and MEG source localization. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 45:1342–1354Google Scholar
  16. Mosher JC, Lewis PS, Leahy RM (1992) Multiple dipole modeling and localization from spatio-temporal MEG data. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 39:541–557Google Scholar
  17. Nakamura A, Yamada T, Goto A, Kato T, Ito K, Abe Y, Kachi T, Kakigi R (1998) Somatosensory homunculus drawn by MEG. Neuroimage 7:377–386Google Scholar
  18. Nelson RN, Sur M, Felleman DJ, Kaas JH (1980) Representations of the body surface in postcentral parietal cortex of Macaca fascicularis. J Comp Neurol 192:611–643Google Scholar
  19. Penfield W, Boldrey E (1937) Somatic motor and sensory representation in the cerebral cortex of man as studied by electrical stimulation. Brain 60:389–443Google Scholar
  20. Penfield W, Rasmussen T (1950) The cerebral cortex of man: a clinical study of localization of function. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Rosselet C, Xerri C, Zennou-Azogui Y (2004) Time course of cortical map remodelling induced by nursing behavior: receptive field sizes change more rapidly than receptive field locations. FENS Abstr 2:A225.12Google Scholar
  22. Rothemund Y, Qi H-X, Collins CE, Kaas JH (2002) The genitals and gluteal skin are represented lateral to the foot in anterior parietal somatosensory cortex of macaques. Somatosens Mot Res 19:302–315Google Scholar
  23. Rothemund Y, Grüsser SM, Schaefer M, Flor H (2004) Representation of the human female breast in primary somatosensory cortex. FENS Abstr 2:A225.13Google Scholar
  24. Schaefer M, Mühlnickel W, Grüsser SM, Flor H (2002) Reliability and validity of neuroelectric source imaging in primary somatosensory cortex of human upper limb amputees. Brain Topogr 15:95–106Google Scholar
  25. Sutherling WW, Crandall PH, Darcey TM, Becker DP, Levesque MF, Barth DS (1988) The magnetic and electric fields agree with intracranial localizations of somatosensory cortex. Neurology 38:1705–1714Google Scholar
  26. Taoka M, Toda T, Iwamura Y (1998) Representation of the midline trunk, bilateral arms, and shoulders in the monkey postcentral somatosensory cortex. Exp Brain Res 123:315–322Google Scholar
  27. Woolsey CN (1964) Cortical localization as defined by evoked potential and electrical stimulation studies. In: Schaltenbrand G, Woolsey CN (eds) Cerebral localization and organization. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison Milwaukee, pp17–26Google Scholar
  28. Woolsey CN, Erickson TC, Gilson WE (1979) Localization in somatic sensory and motor areas of human cerebral cortex as determined by direct recording of evoked potentials and electrical stimulation. J Neurosurg 51:476–506Google Scholar
  29. Xerri C, Stern JM, Merzenich MM (1994) Alterations of the cortical representation of the rat ventrum induced by nursing behavior. J Neurosci 14:1710–1721Google Scholar
  30. Yang TT, Gallen CC, Schwartz BJ, Bloom FE (1993) Noninvasive somatosensory homunculus mapping in humans by using a large-array biomagnetometer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:3098–3102Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yvonne Rothemund
    • 1
    • 4
    • 4
  • Michael Schaefer
    • 2
  • Sabine M. Grüsser
    • 3
  • Herta Flor
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical and Cognitive Neuroscience at the University of HeidelbergCentral Institute of Mental Health, J5MannheimGermany
  2. 2.Human Cortical Physiology Section NINDSNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Institute for Medical PsychologyCenter for Humanities and Health SciencesBerlinGermany
  4. 4.University Hospital Charité Psychosomatic MedicineBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations