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Effect of starter culture, probiotics, and flavor additives on physico-chemical, rheological, and sensory properties of cow and goat dessert yogurts

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The effect of (i) starter culture (sweet-Mild, Classic, and Acidic), (ii) probiotics (Bifidobacterium animalis BB-12 in cow milk and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 in goat milk), and (iii) flavor additives [vanilla baccarat (VAN), lemon (LEM), orange (ORA), and mastic (MAS) essential oil] on the properties of cow and goat dessert yogurt was studied. Cow milk proteins were added to all dessert yogurts at 0.5% w/v for the improvement of the gel network structure. Dessert yogurt samples were analyzed for physicochemical parameters (pH, fat, total solids, protein, lactose, WHC and syneresis), rheological properties [elastic (Gʹ), viscous (Gʺ) and tan δ moduli] and sensory attributes (color, odor, texture, taste, and overall score). The results showed that in both cow and goat dessert yogurts, pH, lactose content, and WHC decreased in the following order: Mild > Classic > Acidic, with and without probiotics, while syneresis followed the opposite order. Dessert yoghurts prepared with cow milk exhibited higher syneresis/lower WHC, compared to goat milk dessert yogurts. Regarding Gʹ and Gʺ moduli, higher values were recorded for Gʹ than for Gʺ, indicative of a solid-like behavior for both dessert yogurts. Between the two, higher values of Gʹ were recorded for cow dessert yogurts. Finally, the overall sensory scores revealed that cow dessert yogurts without probiotics (mild and classic culture) were more acceptable than those with probiotics, while the opposite holds for goat dessert yogurts (classic and acidic culture). Among the tested flavor additives, VAN and plain (no additive) ranked higher, compared to the rest.

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Conceptualization, MGK; methodology, GMP; ISK; GD; software, GMP; ISK; validation, GMP; ISK; formal analysis, GMP; ISK; GD; investigation, GMP; ISK; resources, MGK; AVB; data curation, GMP; writing-original draft preparation, GMP; ISK; writing-review and editing, MGK; AVB; visualization, MGK; GMP; supervision, MGK; project administration, MGK; AVB; funding acquisition, GMP; DODONI SA. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Anastasia V. Badeka or Michael G. Kontominas.

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Papaioannou, G.M., Kosma, I.S., Dimitreli, G. et al. Effect of starter culture, probiotics, and flavor additives on physico-chemical, rheological, and sensory properties of cow and goat dessert yogurts. Eur Food Res Technol 248, 1191–1202 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-021-03955-z

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