Skip to main content

Evaluation of Italian extra virgin olive oils based on the phenolic compounds composition using multivariate statistical methods

Abstract

The content of 40 phenolic compounds was determined in 68 samples of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) coming from 9 Italian regions using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and mass spectrometry. Oleuropein isomers (M = 540 g/mol) and derivatives (M = 378 g/mol) together with ligstroside aglycone isomers (M = 362 g/mol) and derivatives (M = 394 g/mol) were the major EVOOs compounds (median of 44–228 mg/kg). On the other hand, verbascoside isomers (M = 624 g/mol) and apigenin (M = 270 g/mol) were the minor compounds (median < 2 mg/kg). Different techniques of multivariate data analysis were applied to find important parameters for discrimination of EVOOs. Principal component analysis and factor analysis distributed the samples into two groups according to the total amount of phenols and quantity of elenolic acid giving information about ripeness of olives. Linear discriminant analysis successfully classified the samples according to their geographical origin into three groups (Northern Italy, Southern Italy, and Sicily).

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. 1.

    Fiorini D, Boarelli MCh, Conti P, Alfei B, Caprioli G, Ricciutelli M, Sagratini G, Fedeli D, Gabbianelli R, Pacetti D (2018) Food Res Int 105:65–75

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Jabeur H, Zribi A, Bouaziz M (2016) Food Anal Method 9:712–723

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Li X, Wang S, Shi W, Shen Q (2016) Food Anal Method 9:1713–1718

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Gilbert-López B, Valencia-Reyes ZL, Yufra-Picardo VM, García-Reyes JF, Ramos-Martos N, Molina-Díaz A (2014) Food Anal Method 7:1824–1833

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Caravaca AMG, Pancorbo AC, Díaz BC, Carretero DAS, Gutiérrez AF (2005) Electrophoresis 26:3538–3551

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Köseoğlu O, Sevim D, Kadiroğlu P (2016) Food Chem 212:628–634

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Visioli F, Bellomo G, Galli C (1998) Biochem Biophys Res Commun 247:60–64

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Xiang Ch, Xu Z, Liu J, Li T, Yang Z, Ding CH (2017) LWT Food Sci Technol 78:226–234

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Alonso-Salces RM, Héberger K, Holland MV, Moreno-Rojas JM, Mariani C, Bellan G, Reniero F, Guillou C (2010) Food Chem 118:956–965

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Mu T, Chen S, Zhang Y, Chen H, Guo P, Meng F (2016) Food Anal Method 9:275–279

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Servili M, Sordini B, Esposto S, Urbani S, Veneziani G, Di Maio I, Selvaggini R, Taticchi A (2014) Antioxidants 3:1–23

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Andrewes P, Busch JLHC, de Joode T, Groenewegen A, Alexandre H (2003) J Agric Food Chem 51:1415–1420

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Becerra-Herrera M, Vélez-Martín A, Ramos-Merchante A, Richter P, Beltrán R, Sayago A (2018) Food Chem 241:328–337

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Bonoli M, Bendini A, Cerretani L, Lercker G, Toschi TG (2004) J Agric Food Chem 52:7026–7032

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Boskou D, Tsimidou M, Blekas G (2006) In: Boskou D (ed) Olive oil chemistry and technology, Ch. 5, 2nd edn. Academic Press, Urbana, pp 73–92

  16. 16.

    Habibi H, Mohammadi A, Farhoodi M, Jazaeri S (2018) Food Anal Method 11:3078–3088

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Kiritsakis K, Rodríguez-Pérez C, Gerasopoulos D, Segura-Carretero A (2017) Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 119:1600425

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Lara-Ortega FJ, López BG, Cambra MB, Molina-Díaz A (2018) Food Anal Method 11:1804–1814

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Cerretani L, Toschi TG, Bendini A (2009) Func Plant Sci Biotechnol 3:69–80

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    del Monaco G, Officioso A, D’Angelo S, La Cara F, Ionata E, Marcolongo L, Squillaci G, Maurelli L, Morana A (2015) Food Chem 184:220–228

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Fuentes E, Paucar F, Tapia F, Ortiz J, Jimenez P, Romero N (2018) Food Chem 243:285–294

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Jiménez-Sánchez C, Lozano-Sánchez J, Brüggemann M, Neves-Vieira M, Rodriguez-Werner M, Schmalfuß E, Winterhalter P, Segura-Carretero A, Fernández-Gutiérrez A (2017) Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 119:1500532

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Karabagias I, Michos C, Badeka A, Kontakos S, Stratis I, Kontominas MG (2013) Food Res Int 54(2):1950–1958

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Mohamed MB, Rocchetti G, Montesano D, Ali SB, Guasmi F, Grati-Kamoun N, Lucini L (2018) Food Res Int 106:920–927

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Reboredo-Rodríguez P, Valli E, Bendini A, Di Lecce G, Simal-Gándara J, Toschi TG (2016) Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 118:1593–1599

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Sayago A, González-Domínguez R, Beltrán R, Fernández-Recamales Á (2018) Food Chem 261:42–50

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Bajoub A, Bendini A, Fernández-Gutiérrez A, Carrasco-Pancorbo A (2018) Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 58:832–857

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Mendes TO, da Rocha RA, Porto BLS, de Oliveira MAL, dos Anjos de CV, Bell MJV (2015) Food Anal Method 8:2339–2346

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Luykx DMAM, van Ruth SM (2008) Food Chem 107:897–911

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Arslan D, Karabekir Y, Schreiner M (2013) Food Res Int 54:1897–1906

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Laroussi-Mezghani S, Vanloot P, Molinet J, Dupuy N, Hammami M, Grati-Kamoun N, Artaud J (2015) Food Chem 173:122–132

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Longobardi F, Ventrella A, Casiello G, Sacco D, Catucci L, Agostiano A, Kontominas MG (2012) Food Chem 133:579–584

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Olmo-García L, Bajoub A, Monasterio RP, Fernández-Gutiérrez A, Carrasco-Pancorbo A (2017) Food Chem 231:374–385

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Reddy GNM, Mannina L, Sobolev AP, Caldarelli S (2018) Food Anal Method 11:1012–1020

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Bayram B, Esatbeyoglu T, Schulze N, Ozcelik B, Frank J, Rimbach G (2012) Plant Foods Hum Nutr 67:326–336

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Bazzu G, Molinu MG, Dore A, Serra PA (2017) J Agric Food Chem 65:1829–1835

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Celano R, Piccinelli AL, Pugliese A, Carabetta S, Di Sanzo R, Rastrelli L, Russo M (2018) J Agric Food Chem 66:6053–6063

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Bajoub A, Pacchiarotta T, Hurtado-Fernández E, Olmo-García L, García-Villalba R, Fernández-Gutiérrez A, Mayboroda OA, Carrasco-Pancorbo A (2016) J Chromatogr A 1428:267–279

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Christophoridou S, Dais P, Tseng LH, Spraul M (2005) J Agric Food Chem 53(12):4667–4679

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Montedoro GF, Servili M, Baldioli M, Selvaggini R, Miniati E, Macchioni A (1993) J Agric Food Chem 41:2228–2234

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Olmo-García L, Polari JJ, Li X, Bajoub A, Fernández-Gutiérrez A, Wang SC, Carrasco-Pancorbo A (2018) Food Chem 261:184–193

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Ricciutelli M, Marconi S, Boarelli MCh, Caprioli G, Sagratini G, Ballini R, Fiorini D (2017) J Chromatogr A 1481:53–63

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Klikarová J, Rotondo A, Cacciola F, Česlová L, Dugo P, Mondello L, Rigano F (2019) Food Anal Method 12:1759–1770

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Šilarová P, Česlová L, Meloun M (2017) Food Chem 237:471–480

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Di Vaio C, Nocerino S, Paduano A, Sacchi R (2012) J Sci Food Agric 93:1134–1139

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Inglese P, Famiani F, Galvano F, Servili M, Esposto S, Urbani S (2011) Hortic Rev 38:83–147

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Ripa V, De Rose F, Caravita MA, Parise MR, Perri E, Rosati A, Pandolfi S, Paoletti A, Pannelli G, Padula G, Giordani E, Bellini E, Buccoliero A, Mennone C (2008) Adv Hortic Sci 22(2):95–103

    Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Servili M, Montedoro GF (2002) Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 104:602–613

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Servili M, Selvaggini R, Esposto S, Taticchi A, Montedoro GF, Morozzi G (2004) J Chromatogr A 1054:113–127

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    D’Imperio M, Mannina L, Capitani D, Bidet O, Rossi E, Bucarelli FM, Quaglia GB, Segre A (2007) Food Chem 105:1256–1267

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Esti M, Cinquanta L, La Notte E (1998) J Agric Food Chem 46:32–35

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Gucci R, Servili M, Esposto S, Selvaggini R (2004) Acta Hortic 664:297–302

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The research was performed within the context of the project AGER2-Rif 2016-0169 “Valorizzazione dei prodotti italiani derivanti dall’oliva attraverso tecniche analitiche innovative”-“Violin”. The authors gratefully acknowledge Shimadzu Corporation and Merck Life Science (Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) for the continuous support. J.K. would like to thank the Erasmus + program for providing the grant for nine months traineeship at University of Messina.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lenka Česlová.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared no conflict of interest.

Compliance with ethics requirements

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (DOCX 143 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Klikarová, J., Česlová, L., Kalendová, P. et al. Evaluation of Italian extra virgin olive oils based on the phenolic compounds composition using multivariate statistical methods. Eur Food Res Technol 246, 1241–1249 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-020-03484-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Extra virgin olive oils
  • Phenols
  • Factor analysis
  • Discriminant analysis
  • HPLC