Exploitation of sourdough lactic acid bacteria to reduce raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) content in breads enriched with chickpea flour

  • Viola Galli
  • Manuel VenturiEmail author
  • Niccolò Pini
  • Simona Guerrini
  • Lisa Granchi
Original Paper


Wheat baked goods fortification with chickpea flour can improve their overall nutritional quality. However, some antinutritional factors, such as raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), of this legume limit its supplementation in bread. The reduction of some of these drawbacks can be achieved using sourdough technology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain a sourdough bread possessing the beneficial effect of chickpea flour addition together with a reduced content of RFOs, thanks to the activity of selected lactic acid bacteria. Sixty sourdough lactobacilli were screened for the capability of growing in a medium with raffinose as unique carbohydrates source. The most promising strains were inoculated in liquid chickpea sourdoughs. Lactobacillus plantarum M8 decreased up to 63.22% the initial amount of RFOs hence it was selected for the manufacture of wheat breads with different percentage of pre-fermented chickpea flour (0, 5, 10 and 20% on total flour). Chickpea flour addition significantly (p > 0.05) increased free amino acids, lysine and total phenolic content of breads compared to a control bread made only with wheat flour. Furthermore, RFOs total amount decreased in breads with increased percentage of pre-fermented chickpea flour in the recipe, confirming the ability of the selected L. plantarum M8 strain to reduce RFOs.


Sourdough Lactobacilli Legumes RFOs Bakery products Nutritional value 



This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Compliance with ethics requirements

The authors declare that this research did not involve human participants or animals.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI)University of FlorenceFlorenceItaly
  2. 2.FoodMicroTeam s.r.l.FlorenceItaly

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