Gluten-free bread: effect of soy and corn co-products on the quality parameters

  • Rafaiane Macedo Guimarães
  • Tatiana Colombo Pimentel
  • Thaisa Alves Matos de Rezende
  • Jhessika de Santana Silva
  • Heloísa Gabriel Falcão
  • Elza Iouko Ida
  • Mariana Buranelo EgeaEmail author
Original Paper


Bread is one of the most consumed products in the world and the most studied among the gluten-free foods. Agroindustry co-products are rich sources of functional ingredients, and their chemical composition suggests great potential as a raw material for the food industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of 10–30% of okara flour (OF), and 15–45% of corn bran (CB) on the physical and chemical characteristics, sensory profile and consumer preference of gluten-free breads. The addition of higher concentrations of OF resulted in products with decreased technological properties (lower specific volumes, lower slice height, higher firmness, darkening and discoloration of the yellow color). The addition of CB contributed to the maintenance of the yellow color in the crust and crumb and to the increase in the corn flavor intensity. The formulation with 20% OF and 40% CB would be the most interesting, because of the chemical composition (30 µmol of isoflavones aglycones/g of sample and 12.87 g of dietary fiber/100 g of sample and lower content of carbohydrates and caloric value) and similar consumer preference to the other formulations. This formulation had lower discoloration of the yellow color and showed sensory properties suited to consumer preference, such as firmness, porosity, compaction (appearance), corn flavor and moisture (texture). The okara flour and corn bran, soy and corn co-products, respectively, can be used as ingredients in the preparation of gluten-free breads with adequate physical, chemical, technological and sensorial characteristics.


Corn bran Okara flour Preference Sensory profile Technological properties 



This study was funded by FAPEG (Process 4545253/2016-3) and CNPq (Process 469104/2014-7). This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior–Brasil (CAPES)–Finance Code 001.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Compliance with ethics requirements

This article does studies carried out with human participants that was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Goiano Federal Institute (CAE: 65962617.2.0000.0036).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rafaiane Macedo Guimarães
    • 1
  • Tatiana Colombo Pimentel
    • 2
  • Thaisa Alves Matos de Rezende
    • 1
  • Jhessika de Santana Silva
    • 1
  • Heloísa Gabriel Falcão
    • 3
  • Elza Iouko Ida
    • 3
  • Mariana Buranelo Egea
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia GoianoRio VerdeBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto Federal do ParanáParanavaíBrazil
  3. 3.Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia de AlimentosUniversidade Estadual de LondrinaLondrinaBrazil

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