Yeasts have been used for centuries for the leavening of bread. The main emphasis on the selection of yeast strains has been in relation to wheat products. This study is the first evaluation of different yeasts coming from the baking and brewing industry in a gluten-free system. Five different yeast strains (US-05, WB-06, T-58, S-23 and baker’s yeast) of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated for their suitability to leaven gluten-free dough. A wide range of dough quality characteristics such as the time and temperature-dependent rising behaviour, the chemical composition of the dough and the pH were determined. In addition to this, the bread quality attributes like, volume, texture, structure, aroma and flavour were evaluated. Obtained results indicated different activity levels between the selected yeast strains. Doughs prepared with US-05 showed a slower dough rise during proofing and a decreased height, in comparison to the baker’s yeast control. The application of WB-06 and T-58, however, resulted in a faster dough rise and increased dough height with greater gas cells (p < 0.05). These observations were also found in the baked breads, where these two yeasts reached a higher specific volume and a softer breadcrumb than the baker’s yeast bread (p < 0.05). Statistical analysis revealed strong correlations (p < 0.05) between activity level, dough properties and bread properties. Results obtained showed that the selected yeast strains reached different level of activity due to diverse preferences in temperature, time and sugars. Yeast strains which originated from the brewing industry were found to be suitable for gluten-free bread making.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Linko Y-Y, Javanainen P, Linko S (1997) Biotechnology of bread baking. Trends Food Sci Technol 8(10):339–344
Fleet GH (2007) Yeasts in foods and beverages: impact on product quality and safety. Curr Opin Biotechnol 18(2):170–175
Rezaei MN et al (2014) Harvesting yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at different physiological phases significantly affects its functionality in bread dough fermentation. Food Microbiol 39:108–115
Heitmann M, Zannini E, Arendt EK (2015) Impact of different beer yeasts on wheat dough and bread quality parameters. J Cereal Sci 63:49–56
Amendola J, Rees N (2003) Understanding the art and science of baking. Wiley, Hoboken
Heitmann M, Zannini E, Arendt E (2018) Impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolites producedduring fermentation on bread quality parameters: a review. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 58(7):1152–1164
Koehler P, Wieser H, Konitzer K (2014) Celiac disease and gluten: multidisciplinary challenges and opportunities. Academic Press, Cambridge
Tsatsaragkou K et al (2017) Improving carob flour performance for making gluten-free breads by particle size fractionation and jet milling. Food Bioprocess Technol 10(5):831–841
Lai H, Lin T (2006) Bakery products: science and technology. Bak Prod Sci Technol 3–65
Birch AN et al (2013) Influence of commercial baker’s yeasts on bread aroma profiles. Food Res Int 52(1):160–166
Birch AN, Petersen MA, Hansen ÅS (2014) Aroma of wheat bread crumb. Cereal Chem 91(2):105–114
Pico J, Bernal J, Gómez M (2015) Wheat bread aroma compounds in crumb and crust: a review. Food Res Int 75:200–215
Randez-Gil F, Sanz P, Prieto JA (1999) Engineering baker’s yeast: room for improvement. Trends Biotechnol 17(6):237–244
Horstmann S, Foschia M, Arendt E (2017) Correlation analysis of protein quality characteristics with gluten-free bread properties. Food Funct 8(7):2465–2474
Penninckx MJ (2002) An overview on glutathione in Saccharomyces versus non-conventional yeasts. FEMS Yeast Res 2(3):295–305
Verheyen C et al (2015) The contribution of glutathione to the destabilizing effect of yeast on wheat dough. Food Chem 173:243–249
Reed G (2012) Yeast technology. Springer Science & Business Media, New York
Delcour J, Hoseney RC (2010) Principles of cereal science and technology authors provide insight into the current state of cereal processing. Cereal Foods World 55(1):21–22
Yano H (2010) Improvements in the bread-making quality of gluten-free rice batter by glutathione. J Agric Food Chem 58(13):7949–7954
White C, Zainasheff J (2010) Yeast: the practical guide to beer fermentation. Brewers Publications, Boulder
Struyf N et al (2017) Bread dough and baker’s yeast: an uplifting synergy. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 16(5):850–867
Frasse P et al (1993) The influence of fermentation on volatile compounds in French bread dough. LWT-Food Sci Technol 26(2):126–132
Verheyen C, Jekle M, Becker T (2014) Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the structural kinetics of wheat dough during fermentation. LWT-Food Sci Technol 58(1):194–202
Sluimer P (2005) Principles of bread making: functionality of raw materials and process steps. American Association of cereal chemists, St. Paul, MN, pp 42–48
Cauvain SP, Young LS (2016) Technology of breadmaking. Springer, New York
Hager A-S et al (2012) Investigation of product quality, sensory profile and ultrastructure of breads made from a range of commercial gluten-free flours compared to their wheat counterparts. Eur Food Res Technol 235(2):333–344
Morreale F, Garzón R, Rosell CM (2017) Understanding the role of hydrocolloids viscosity and hydration in developing gluten-free bread. A study with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. Food Hydrocoll 77:629–635
Gray J, Bemiller J (2003) Bread staling: molecular basis and control. Compr Reviews Food Sci Food Saf 2(1):1–21
Wainwright T (1973) Diacetyl—A review: Part I—analytical and biochemical considerations: Part II—brewing experience. J Inst Brew 79(6):451–470
Heitmann M et al (2017) Correlation of flavor profile to sensory analysis of bread produced with different Saccharomyces cerevisiae originating from the baking and beverage industry. Cereal Chem 94(4):746–751
Tressl R et al (1993) Formation of proline- and hydroxyproline-specific Maillard products from [1–13C] glucose. J Agric Food Chem 41(4):547–553
Otterstedt K et al (2004) Switching the mode of metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. EMBO Rep 5(5):532–537
Horstmann SW et al (2016) Fundamental study on the impact of gluten-free starches on the quality of gluten-free model breads. Foods 5(2):30
Horstmann SW, Lynch KM, Arendt EK (2017) Starch characteristics linked to gluten-free products. Foods 6(4):29
The authors want to thank Tom Hannon for his technical and Kieran Lynch for editorial support. Further thanks goes to Concept Life Sciences, UK for the volatile compound analysis. The work for this study was part of the PROTEIN2FOOD project. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant agreement No 635727.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
Compliance with ethics requirements
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
About this article
Cite this article
Horstmann, S.W., Atzler, J.J., Heitmann, M. et al. Impact of different S. cerevisiae yeast strains on gluten-free dough and bread quality parameters. Eur Food Res Technol 245, 213–223 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-018-3154-9
- Dough rise
- Beer yeast
- Starch-based system