European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 244, Issue 9, pp 1605–1613 | Cite as

Optimization using chemometrics of HS-SPME/GC–MS profiling of saffron aroma and identification of geographical volatile markers

  • Angelo Antonio D’Archivio
  • Luciana Di Pietro
  • Maria Anna Maggi
  • Leucio Rossi
Original Paper


Gas cromatography with mass spectrometry detection coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used to analyse the aroma profile of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). The influence of the saffron amount and form (intact stigmas vs. powder) on the intensity of the chromatograms was preliminarily evaluated. Moreover, the mutual effects of the sample temperature and exposition time of a polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber was investigated by response surface methodology. Saffron samples produced in L’Aquila (Italy), Iran and Morocco, and commercial spices were analysed under application of the optimised SPME conditions and geographical classification was attempted by linear discriminant analysis applied to the relative peak areas of all the detected volatiles. The spices produced in the different geographical areas and the commercial products were discriminated with good accuracy, 91% of external samples being correctly classified using leave-one-out cross-validation. An acceptable differentiation (73% of correct predictions) was obtained by considering only the major aroma components.


Saffron aroma HS-SPME/GC–MS Response surface methodology Geographical traceability 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Compliance with ethics requirements

The authors declare that this article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Supplementary material

217_2018_3073_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (267 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 267 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angelo Antonio D’Archivio
    • 1
  • Luciana Di Pietro
    • 1
  • Maria Anna Maggi
    • 2
  • Leucio Rossi
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e ChimicheUniversità degli Studi dell’AquilaL’AquilaItaly
  2. 2.Hortus NovusL’AquilaItaly

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