Advertisement

European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 244, Issue 5, pp 795–804 | Cite as

Chemical, nutritional, and spectroscopic characterization of typical ecotypes of Mediterranean area beans

  • Francesco Siano
  • Giuseppe Sorrentino
  • Maria Riccardi
  • Fausta De Cunzo
  • Giuseppe Orefice
  • Maria Grazia Volpe
Original Paper
  • 180 Downloads

Abstract

Recent considerations have highlighted the great potential that can arise from extinct ecotypes above all in the so-called marginal areas, where the exploitation of these crops may have the environmental protection value, and in addition, a social value promoting employment in the areas subjects to depopulation. Moreover, many studies have confirmed that regularly consume of beans and other legumes helps to prevent and cure several degenerative diseases. Therefore, in the present work, four “niche” bean ecotypes were characterized from morphological and health point of view to exalt their territorial vocation and give it a sort of identity card or food fingerprint. Beans were characterized by chemical composition, fatty acid, sterols’ profile, and micro/macroelements. The results of this study suggest that the chemical and biochemical characteristics of different bean local Mediterranean ecotypes can be considered of high nutritional quality from a health point of view and their consumption is also a way to preserve the agricultural biodiversity. Among the varieties examined, there is someone richer in health components (sterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and some macroelements) than others. Polyunsaturated fatty acids predominated in all samples, ranging from 44 to 72% of total fatty acids, while they exhibited always the following phytosterol profiles: β-sitosterol > stigmasterol > ∆5-avenasterol > campesterol. Brassicasterol was absent in all analyzed samples. Among the four legumes (dry matter), sample Q had the highest concentration of Potassium (14.41 g Kg−1) and calcium (2.32 g Kg−1), while the same elements resulted lowest in sample M (11.3 and 0.82 g Kg−1, respectively). Magnesium content resulted major in ecotype Z (16.46 g Kg−1) and B (15.90 g Kg−1). Concerning the mean concentrations of microelements in all the analyzed samples, the order was found to be: Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Mo > Ni. Finally, ATR–FTIR spectra could give an immediately evaluation semi-quantitative of macronutritional components of analyzed samples.

Keywords

Beans Mediterranean area GC–FID ICP-OES ATR–FTIR 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper was realized with technical support of stakeholders of Slow Food Campania partner of EU Project “Protein2Food”. Thanks to mister Sabato Abbagnale, Dr.ssa Silvia D’Ambra, student Eleonora Garozzo Zannini of Tuscia University, mister Antonio Prospero steward of biodiversity for their kindly collaboration.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares that there is no competing interest.

Compliance with ethics requirements

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

References

  1. 1.
    Tilman D, Cassman KG, Pamela A, Matson PA, Naylor R, Polasky S (2002) Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature 418:671–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kang Y, Khan S, Ma X (2009) Climate change impacts on crop yield, crop water productivity and food security—A review. Prog Nat Sci 19:1665–1674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stagnari F, Maggio A, Galieni A, Pisante M (2017) Multiple benefits of legumes for agriculture sustainability: an overview. Chem Biol Technol Agric 4:2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Garcìa-Lafuente A, Eva Guillamòn E, Villares A, Rostagno MA, Martìnez JA (2009) Flavonoids as anti-inflammatory agents: implications in cancer and cardiovascular disease. Inflamm Res 58:537–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baloch MS, Zubair M (2010) Effect of nipping on growth and yield of chickpea. J Anim Plant Sci 20(3):208–210Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tharanathan RN, Mahadevamma S (2003) Grain legumes—a boon to human nutrition. Trends Food Sci Technol 14:507–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Amarowicz R, Pegg RB (2008) Legumes as a source of natural antioxidants. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 110:865–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rochfor S, Panozzo J (2007) Phytochemicals for health, the role of pulses. J Agric Food Chem 55:7981–7994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rudkowska I (2010) Plant sterols and stanols for healthy ageing. Maturitas 66:158–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Estruch R, Ros E, Salas-Salvadò J, Covas MI, Corella D, Aros F, Gomez-Gracia E, Ruiz-Gutierrez V, Fiol M, Lapetra J et al (2013) Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. N Engl J Med 368:1279–1290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Villegas R, Gao YT, Yang G, Li HL, Elasy TA, Zheng W et al (2008) Legume and soy food intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 87:162–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rizkalla SW, Bellisle F, Slama G (2002) Health benefits of low glycaemic index foods, such as pulses, in diabetic patients and healthy individuals. Br J Nutr 88:S255–S262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bazzano LA, Thompson AM, Tees MT, Nguyen CH, Winham DM (2011) Non-soy legume consumption lowers cholesterol levels: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 21:94–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bazzano LA, Tees MT, Nguyen CH (2008) Effect of non-soy legume consumption on cholesterol levels: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Abstract 3272. Circulation 118:S1122Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    AOAC International (2016) Official methods of analysis, 20th edn. AOAC International, Rockville, MDGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Siano F, Straccia MC, Paolucci M, Fasulo G, Boscaino F, Volpe MG (2016) Physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of pomegranate, cherry and pumpkin seed oils. J Sci Food Agric 96:1730–1735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Caligiani A, Bonzanini F, Palla G, Cirlini M, Bruni R (2010) Characterization of a potential nutraceutical ingredient: pomegranate (Punicagranatum L) seed oil unsaponifiable fraction. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 65:277–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Volpe MG, Nazzaro M, Di Stasio M, Siano F, Coppola R, De Marco A (2015) Content of micronutrients, mineral and trace elements in some Mediterranean spontaneous edible herbs. Chem Cent J 9:57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kaur M, Singh N (2007) A comparison between the properties of seed, starch, flour and protein separated from chemically hardened and normal kidney beans. J Sci Food Agric 87:729–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    WHO, World Health Organization (1982) Prevention of coronary heart disease. WHO, Geneva, p 642Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lawton CL, Delargy HJ, Brockman J, Simith RC, Blundell JE (2000) The degree of saturation of fatty acids influences post-ingestive satiety. Br J Nutr 83(5):473–482Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kalogeropoulos N, Chiou A, Ioannou M, Karathanos VT, Hassapidou M, Andrikopoulos NK (2010) Nutritional evaluation and bioactive micro constituents (phytosterols, tocopherols, polyphenols, triterpenic acids) in cooked dry legumes usually consumed in the Mediterranean countries. Food Chem 121:682–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kaloustian J, Alhanout K, Amiot-Carlin M-J, Lairon D, Portugal H, Nicolay A (2008) Effect of water cooking on free phytosterol levels in beans and vegetables. Food Chem 107:1379–1386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Law M (2000) Plant sterol and stanol margarines and health. BMJ 320(7238):861–864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Andrikopoulos NK, Kaliora AC, Assimopoulou AN, Papageorgiou AC (2002) Inhibitory Activity of minor polyphenolic and nonpolyphenolic constituents of olive oil against in vitro low-density lipoprotein oxidation. J Med Food 5(1):1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    de Jong A, Plat P, Mensink PR (2003) Metabolic effects of plant sterols and stanols. J Nutr Biochem 14:362–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Andersson SW, Skinner J, Ellegard L, Welch AA, Bingham S, Mulligan A, Andersson H, Khaw KT (2004) Intake of dietary plant sterols is inversely related to serum cholesterol concentration in men and women in the EPIC Norfolk population: a cross-sectional study. Eur J Clin Nutr 58:1378–1385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Llorent-Martinez EJ, Fernandez de Cordova ML, Ruiz-Medina A, Ortega-Barrales P (2012) Analysis of 20 trace and minor elements in soy and dairy yogurts by ICP-MS. Microchem J 102:23–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Santato A, Bertoldi D, Perini M, Camin F, Larcher R (2012) Using elemental profiles and stable isotopes to trace the origin of green coffee beans on the global market. J Mass Spectrom 47:1132–1140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Khan N, Jeong IS, Hwang IM, Kim JS, Choi SH, Nho EY, Choi JY, Park KS, Kim KS (2014) Analysis of minor and trace elements in milk and yogurts by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Food Chem 147:220–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Timoracká M, Vollmannová A, Ismael DS (2011) Minerals, trace elements and flavonoids content in white and coloured kidney bean. Potravinárstvo 5(1):56–60Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Campos-Vega R, Loarca-Piña G, Oomahet BD (2010) Minor components of pulses and their potential impact on human health. Food Res Int 43:461–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gençcelep H, Uzun Y, Tunçtürk Y, Demirel K (2009) Determination of mineral contents of wild-grown edible mushrooms. Food Chem 113:1033–1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M (1994) Modern nutrition in health and disease. Lea and Febiger, MalvernGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fennema OR (2000) Food chemistry. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    van de Voort FR (1992) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy applied to food analysis. Food Res Int 25:397–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wilson RH, Tapp HS (1999) Mid-infrared spectroscopy for food analysis: recent new applications and relevant developments in sample presentation methods. Trends Analyt Chem 18(2):87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Capron I, Robert P, Colonna P, Brogly M, Planchot V (2007) Starch in rubbery and glassy states by FTIR spectroscopy. Carbohydr Polym 68:249–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Barth A (2007) Infrared spectroscopy of proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta 1767:1073–1101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Guillén MD, Cabo N (1997) Infrared spectroscopy in the study of edible oils and fats. J Sci Food Agric 75:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Istituto di Scienze dell’AlimentazioneConsiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR)AvellinoItaly
  2. 2.Istituto per i Sistemi Agricoli e Forestali del MediterraneoConsiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR)ErcolanoItaly
  3. 3.Slow Food CampaniaFalciano del MassicoItaly

Personalised recommendations