Evaluation of the shelf life and cooking methods of Ascoli-style olives, an Italian specialty food
- 73 Downloads
In recent years, consumers have been increasingly interested in the quality and safety of specialty food products that are perceived as healthy and wholesome. However, few studies have been carried out to assess the effects of domestic cooking on the fate of pathogens in meat-based products. The present study aimed to assess the shelf life of ready-to-cook Ascoli-style olives, an Italian specialty food preparation, through accelerated shelf life tests. A challenge test was also carried out to test the efficacy of cooking methods on the survival of Salmonella Senftenberg strains. Accelerated shelf life assays, including physico-chemical assays (investigating the total volatile basic nitrogen and pH), microbiological counts (Enterobacteriaceae counts) and sensory parameters (appearance, color, odor, flavor and texture) allowed us to obtain sound information on the durability of pre-cooked Ascoli-style olives in an affordable and efficient manner. This is therefore an effective method that could be exploited by food business operators hoping to provide scientific information on product shelf life assessments. The challenge tests demonstrated that fan-baking in an electric oven at 200 °C for 12 min and deep frying for 4 min are the more effective treatments needed to inactivate the artificially inoculated Salmonella Senftenberg strains.
KeywordsChallenge test Food durability Food safety Deep frying Salmonella Fan-baking
AP was the scientific coordinator of the study. MF and SL set up the protocols for the microbial contamination of the samples subjected to the challenge test. FP and VV carried out the microbiological analyses of the samples subjected to the challenge test. MF and RM coordinated the activities at the Optimization and Control of Food Production Laboratory used for the challenge test. AP and AP carried out the microbial contamination of samples subjected to the challenge test and cooking trials. MNH and MSA set up the shelf life protocols, and MT carried out the chemical and microbiological analyses of the samples subjected to shelf life assessment. The paper was written by AP, MNH and AO, and FC and FT performed the critical analysis of the data collected. Finally, the paper was critically read and improved upon by all co-authors.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Compliance with ethics requirements
This article does not contain any studies with human of animal subjects.
All assessors involved in the sensory analysis were informed about the aims of the study and provided their informed written consent.
- 4.Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 of the European Parliament and the Council of 15 November 2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. Off J Eur Union. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2005:338:0001:0026:EN:PDF
- 5.O’Sullivan MG (2017) Chapter 6—Shelf life and sensory quality of foods and beverages. In: A handbook for sensory and consumer-driven new product development. Woodhead Publishing, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 103–123Google Scholar
- 11.Commission Regulation (EC) No 1855/2005 of 14 November 2005 supplementing the Annex to Regulation (EC) No 2400/96 as regards the entry of certain names in the Register of protected designations of origin and protected geographical indications (Mela Alto Adige or Südtiroler Apfel (PGI), Asperge des Sables des Landes (PGI), Pâtes d’Alsace (PGI), Jamón de Trevélez (PGI), Oliva Ascolana del Piceno (PDO)). Off J Eur Union. http://http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=OJ:L:2005:297:FULL&from=ITGoogle Scholar
- 12.Felici A, Ciarrocchi G (2015) Il Piceno la terra degli infiniti sapori. Valorizzazione nutrizionale di ricette del territorio piceno. Capponi (ed). p 62. http://www.digitalpublish.it/book/camcom-ap/infiniti_sapori/files/assets/common/downloads/publication.pdf
- 13.Commission Regulation (EC) No 2074/2005 of 5 December 2005 laying down implementing measures for certain products under Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council and for the organisation of official controls under Regulation (EC) No 854/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Regulation (EC) No 882/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council, derogating from Regulation (EC) No 852/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council and amending Regulations (EC) No 853/2004 and (EC) No 854/2004. Off J Eur Union. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32005R2074&from=it
- 14.Arrhenius SA (1889) Über die Dissociationswärme und den Einfluß der Temperatur auf den Dissociationsgrad der Elektrolyte. Z Phys Chem 4:96–116Google Scholar
- 15.Arrhenius SA (1889) Über die Reaktionsgeschwindigkeit bei der Inversion von Rohrzucker durch Säuren. Z Phys Chem 4:226–248Google Scholar
- 16.Connors KA (1990) Chemical kinetics. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
- 17.Labuza TP (1982) Shelf-life dating of foods. Food & Nutrition Press, Westport. pp 1–87, 99–118Google Scholar
- 18.Labuza TP, Schmidl MK (1985) Accelerated shelf-life testing of foods. Food Technol 39:57–64Google Scholar
- 19.Haouet MN, Altissimi MS, Blasi G, Petruzzelli A, Scuota S, Cenci T (2007) Shelf life assessment and prediction of traditional food of Central Italy. Ital J Food Sci 19:82–86Google Scholar
- 20.Meilgaard M, Civille GV, Carr BT (1991) Sensory evaluation techniques, 2nd edn. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, pp 135–235Google Scholar
- 22.Haouet MN, Altissimi MS, Mercuri ML, Baldassarri C, Osimani A, Clementi F, Ortenzi R (2017) Evaluation of the safety of Milano-type dry fermented sausages produced by a fast drying technology. Ital J Food Sci 29:1–9Google Scholar
- 25.EURL Lm Anses (2014) Technical Guidance Document for conducting shelf-life studies on Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods. https://sites.anses.fr/en/system/files/private/EURL%20Lm_Technical%20Guidance%20Document%20Lm%20shelf-life%20studies_V3_2014-06-06.pdf
- 27.Directive 2000/13/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 March 2000 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the labelling, presentation and advertising of foodstuffs. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32000L0013&from=en
- 29.Petruzzelli A, Osimani A, Pasquini M, Clementi F, Vetrano V, Paolini F, Foglini M, Micci E, Paoloni A, Tonucci F (2016) Trends in the microbial contamination of bovine, ovine and swine carcasses in three small-scale abattoirs in central Italy: a four-year monitoring. Meat Sci 111:53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 31.Tanner D (2016) Impacts of storage on food quality, reference module in food science. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1–4Google Scholar
- 32.Lawrie RA (2002) The eating quality of meat. In: Meat science, 5th edn. Pergamon Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 33.Laidler KJ (1987) Chemical kinetics, 3rd edn. Harper & Row, New York City, p 42Google Scholar
- 38.National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (2009) Parameters for determining inoculated pack/challenge study protocols. Washington, DC. https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/3b52f9c0-0585-4c0a-abf2-b4fc89a9668c/NACMCF_Inoculated_Pack_2009F.pdf?MOD=AJPERES
- 39.EFSA and ECDC (European Food Safety Authority and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control) (2015) The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2013. EFSA J 13(1):3991. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2015.3991 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 46.Ferreira de Melo AN, Targino de Souza G, Schaffner D, Moreira de Oliveira TC, Ferreira Maciel J, Leite de Souza E, Magnani M (2017) Changes in thermo-tolerance and survival under simulated gastrointestinal conditions of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and Salmonella Typhimurium PT4 in chicken breast meat after exposure to sequential stresses. Int J Food Microbiol 251:15–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 47.Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2011 on the provision of food information to consumers, amending Regulations (EC) No 1924/2006 and (EC) No 1925/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council, and repealing Commission Directive 87/250/EEC, Council Directive 90/496/EEC, Commission Directive 1999/10/EC, Directive 2000/13/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, Commission Directives 2002/67/EC and 2008/5/EC and Commission Regulation (EC) No 608/2004. Off J Eur Union. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32011R1169&from=en