European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 244, Issue 3, pp 433–439 | Cite as

Non-intentionally added substances in PET bottled mineral water during the shelf-life

  • Fabrizio Cincotta
  • Antonella Verzera
  • Gianluca Tripodi
  • Concetta CondursoEmail author
Original Paper


A rapid and simple HS-SPME–GC–MS method was developed and applied to investigate the effect of the storage time on the release of not intentionally added substances (NIAS) in PET bottled mineral water. The method, validated in terms of linearity, precision, detection, and quantification limits, resulted highly reproducible with limits of detection ranging between 0.05 and 0.17 µg/L. Saturated and 2-unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes, ketones, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon, terpenes, and phthalates were identified and quantified, most of them for the first time in PET bottled mineral water. The levels of the identified NIAS showed statistically significant increases during the shelf-life. Decanal and nonanal were the most abundant compounds identified with levels increasing from 1.42 to 5.07 µg/L and from 0.61 to 1.25 µg/L, respectively. Considering the identified substances, a migration not only from packaging materials but also from the closure caps and adhesive used for sticking the bottle labels may be plausible. Due to the growing popularity of bottled water consumption, the determination of NIAS in mineral water is becoming a top priority. In this context, the method, here developed, could be of great importance not only to assure the safety of bottled mineral water but also to guarantee the sensory quality during the shelf-life.


Mineral water PET NIAS Aliphatic aldehydes Phthalates Shelf-life 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Fabrizio Cincotta, Antonella Verzera, Gianluca Tripodi, and Concetta Condurso declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Not applicable.


  1. 1.
    Rodwan Jr JG (2010) Bottled water 2009 International Bottled Water Association. Accessed 28 March 2011
  2. 2.
    Begley TH, Dennison JL, Hollifield HC (1990) Migration into food of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) cyclic oligomers from PET microwave susceptor packaging. Food Addit Contam 7:797–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ashby R (1988) Migration from polyethylene terephthalate under all conditions of use. Food Addit Contam 5:485–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    European Commission (2011) Commission Regulation (EU) N 10/2011 of 14 January 2011 on plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food. Off J Eur Comm L12:1–89Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bach C, Dauchy X, Severin I, Munoz JF, Etienne S, Chagnon MC (2013) Effect of temperature on the release of intentionally and non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: chemical analysis and potential toxicity. Food Chem 139:672–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Muncke J (2009) Exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds via the food chain: is packaging a relevant source? Sci Total Environ 407:4549–4559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yang CZ, Yaniger SI, Jordan VC, Klein DJ, Bittner GD (2011) Most plastic products release estrogenic chemicals: a potential health problem that can be solved. Environ Health Persp 119:989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Aznar M, Vera P, Canellas E, Nerín C, Mercea P, Störmer A (2011) Composition of the adhesives used in food packaging multilayer materials and migration studies from packaging to food. J Mater Chem 21:4358–4370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Welle F (2011) Twenty years of PET bottle to bottle recycling—an overview. Resour Conserv Recycl 55:865–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Widén H, Leufvén A, Nielsen T (2005) Identification of chemicals, possibly originating from misuse of refillable PET bottles, responsible for consumer complaints about off-odours in water and soft drinks. Food Addit Contam 22:681–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Evandri MG, Tucci P, Bolle P (2000) Toxicological evaluation of commercial mineral water bottled in polyethylene terephthalate: a cytogenetic approach with Allium cepa. Food Addit Contam 17:1037–1045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wegelin M, Canonica S, Alder C, Marazuela D, Suter MF, Bucheli TD, Ibrahim P (2001) Does sunlight change the material and content of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles? J Water Supply Res Technol AQUA 50:125–135Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sugaya N, Nakagawa T, Sakurai K, Morita M, Onodera S (2001) Analysis of aldehydes in water by head space-GC/MS. J Health Sci 47:21–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dąrowska A, Borcz A, Nawrocki J (2003) Aldehyde contamination of mineral water stored in PET bottles. Food Addit Contam 20:1170–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mutsuga M, Kawamura Y, Sugita-Konishi Y, Hara-Kudo Y, Takatori K, Tanamoto K (2006) Migration of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde into mineral water in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Food Addit Contam 23:212–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ioannidou MD, Samouris G, Achilias DS (2016) Acetaldehyde contamination of water, alcoholic, and non-alcoholic beverages stored in glass or plastic bottles. Toxicol Environ Chem 98:1183–1190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Psillakis E, Kalogerakis N (2003) Hollow-fibre liquid-phase microextraction of phthalate esters from water. J Chromatogr A 999:145–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bošnir J, Puntarić D, Galić A, Škes I, Dijanić T, Klarić M, Šmit Z (2007) Migration of phthalates from plastic containers into soft drinks and mineral water. Food Technol Biotechnol 45:91–95Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Amiridou D, Voutsa D (2011) Alkylphenols and phthalates in bottled waters. J Hazard Mater 185:281–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Keresztes S, Tatár E, Czégény Z, Záray G, Mihucz VG (2013) Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water. Sci Total Environ 458:451–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jeddi MZ, Rastkari N, Ahmadkhaniha R, Yunesian M (2015) Concentrations of phthalates in bottled water under common storage conditions: do they pose a health risk to children? Food Res Int 69:256–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Song YS, Al-Taher F, Sadler G (2003) Migration of volatile degradation products into ozonated water from plastic packaging materials. Food Addit Contam 20:985–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    LoPachin RM, Gavin T (2014) Molecular mechanisms of aldehyde toxicity: a chemical perspective. Chem Res Toxicol 27:1081–1091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    O’Brien PJ, Siraki AG, Shangari N (2005) Aldehyde sources, metabolism, molecular toxicity mechanisms, and possible effects on human health. Crit Rev Toxicol 35:609–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Takeda K, Katoh S, Nakatani N, Sakugawa H (2006) Rapid and highly sensitive determination of low-molecular-weight carbonyl compounds in drinking water and natural water by preconcentration HPLC with 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Anal Sci 22:1509–1514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kim HJ, Shin HS (2011) Simple and automatic determination of aldehydes and acetone in water by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. J Sep Sci 34:693–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nawrocki J, Dąbrowska A, Borcz A (2002) Investigation of carbonyl compounds in bottled waters from Poland. Water Res 36:4893–4901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Van den Dool H, Kratz PD (1963) A generalization of the retention index system including linear temperature programmed gas–liquid partition chromatography. J Chromatogr A 11:463–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Verzera A, Condurso C, Romeo V, Tripodi G, Ziino M (2010) Solid-phase microextraction coupled to fast gas chromatography for the determination of migrants from polystyrene-packaging materials into yoghurt. Food Anal Methods 3:80–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bianchin JN, Nardini G, Merib J, Dias AN, Martendal E, Carasek E (2012) Simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene in water samples using a new sampling strategy combining different extraction modes and temperatures in a single extraction solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry procedure. J Chromatogr A 1233:22–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Strube A, Buettner A, Groetzinger C (2009) Characterization and identification of a plastic-like off-odor in mineral water. Water Sci Technol 9:299–309Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shi Y, Liu H, Rule M (2003). US Patent Application No. 10/393,857Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bravo A, Hotchkiss JH, Acree TE (1992) Identification of odor-active compounds resulting from thermal oxidation of polyethylene. J Agric Food Chem 40:1881–1885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Grob K, Grob G (1975) Organic substances in potable water and in its precursor: III. The closed-loop stripping procedure compared with rapid liquid extraction. J Chromatogr A 106:299–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bayer FL (2002) Polyethylene terephthalate recycling for food-contact applications: testing, safety and technologies: a global perspective. Food Addit Contam 19:111–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nerin C, Albinana J, Philo MR, Castle L, Raffael B, Simoneau C (2003) Evaluation of some screening methods for the analysis of contaminants in recycled polyethylene terephthalate flakes. Food Addit Contam 20:668–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dimitrov N, Krehula LK, Siročić AP, Hrnjak-Murgić Z (2013) Analysis of recycled PET bottles products by pyrolysis-gas chromatography. Polym Degrad Stab 98:972–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Casajuana N, Lacorte S (2003) Presence and release of phthalic esters and other endocrine disrupting compounds in drinking water. Chromatographia 57:649–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Arcadi FA, Costa C, Imperatore C, Marchese A, Rapisarda A, Salemi M, Costa G (1998) Oral toxicity of bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate during pregnancy and suckling in the Long–Evans rat. Food Chem Toxicol 36:963–970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Petrović M, Eljarrat E, de Alda MJL, Barceló D (2001) Analysis and environmental levels of endocrine-disrupting compounds in freshwater sediments. TrAC Trends Anal Chem 20:637–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Veterinary SciencesUniversity of Messina, Polo Universitario dell’AnnunziataMessinaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental SciencesUniversity of MessinaMessinaItaly

Personalised recommendations