Advertisement

European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 243, Issue 9, pp 1519–1531 | Cite as

Polyphenols and aromatic volatile compounds in biodynamic and conventional ‘Golden Delicious’ apples (Malus domestica Bork.)

  • Elisa Masi
  • Cosimo Taiti
  • Pamela Vignolini
  • Antonio William Petrucci
  • Edgardo Giordani
  • Daniela Heimler
  • Annalisa Romani
  • Stefano Mancuso
Original Paper

Abstract

Biodynamic and conventional apples of the cultivar ‘Golden Delicious’ were characterized based on the investigation of polyphenol content and volatile composition. Polyphenols were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and mass spectrometry HPLC/DAD/MS analysis; volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected with a proton transfer-time of flight-mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) approach. Colour and physiochemical fruit parameters were also acquired to compare fruit ripeness. By the analysis of the entire data set, it emerges that polyphenols can separate samples both on geographic and agricultural management basis, according to PCA analysis. On the contrary, PCA on volatile compounds is unable to separate the samples. Results suggest that, in apple fruits, polyphenols content is highly influenced by external factors, while volatile profile is under a stronger genetic control, thus more stable across different environments.

Keywords

Farming system HPLC/DAD/MS Malus domestica Bork. Secondary metabolites PTR-ToF-MS VOCs 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge the apples producers Mr. Alexius Terzer (Bolzano, Trentino Alto Adige) and Mr. Mario Tonioni (La Coccinella di Alberoro, Arezzo, Tuscany), and Dr. Laura Isolani for her technical support. This study was supported by funds of the Regione Toscana ‘‘PRAF 2012–2015 MISURA 1.2 e)’’ program (call “Agrifood”, project VOLATOSCA).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Smith-Spangler C, Brandeau ML, Hunter G, Clay Bavinger J, Pearson M, Eschbach PJ, Sundaram V, Liu H, Schirmer P, Stave C, Olkin I, Bravata DM (2012) Are organic foods safer or healthier than conventional alternatives? A systematic review. Ann Inter Med 157:348–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barański M, Średnicka-Tober D, Volakakis N, Seal C, Sanderson R, Stewart GB, Benbrook C, Biavati B, Markellou E, Giotis C, Gromadzka-Ostrowska J, Rembiałkowska E, Skwarło-Sońta K, Tahvonen R, Janovská D, Niggli U, Nicot P, Leifert C (2014) Higher antioxidant and lower cadmium concentrations and lower incidence of pesticide residues in organically grown crops: a systematic literature review and meta-analyses. Br J Nutr 112:794–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Heimler D, Isolani L, Vignolini P, Romani A (2009) Polyphenol content and antiradical activity of Cichorium intybus L. from biodynamic and conventional farming. Food Chem 114:765–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Heimler D, Vignolini P, Arfaioli P, Isolani L, Romani A (2012) Conventional, organic and biodynamic farming: differences in polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of Batavia lettuce. J Sci Food Agric 92:551–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fonseca Maciel L, da Silva Oliveira C, da Silva Bispo E, Maria da P, Spinola M (2011) Antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds and flavonoids of mangoes coming from biodynamic, organic and conventional cultivations in three maturation stages. Brit Food J 113:1103–1113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tassoni A, Tango N, Ferri M (2013) Comparison of biogenic amine and polyphenol profiles of grape berries and wines obtained following conventional, organic and biodynamic agricultural and oenological practices. Food Chem 139:405–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boyer J, Liu RH (2004) Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits. Nutr J 3:3–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Farneti B, Masuero D, Costa F, Magnago P, Malnoy M, Costa G, Vrhovsek U, Mattivi F (2015) Is there room for improving the nutraceutical composition of apple? J Agric Food Chem 63:2750–2759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stracke BA, Rüfer CE, Weibel FP, Bub A, Watzl B (2009) Three-year comparison of the polyphenol contents and antioxidant capacities in organically and conventionally produced apples (Malus domestica Bork. Cultivar ‘Golden Delicious’). J Agric Food Chem 57:4598–4605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yuri JA, Maldonado FJ, Razmilic I, Neira A, Quilodran A, Palomo I (2012) Concentrations of total phenols and antioxidant activity in apple do not differ between conventional and organic orchard management. J Food Agric Environ 10:207–216Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vanzo A, Jenko M, Vrhovsek U, Stopar M (2013) Metabolomic profiling and sensorial quality of ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Liberty’, ‘Santana’, and ‘Topaz’ apples grown using organic and integrated production systems. J Agric Food Chem 61:6580–6587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Raffo A, Baiamonte I, Bucci R, D’Aloise A, Kelderer M, Matteazzi A, Moneta E, Nardo N, Paoletti G, Peparaio M (2014) Effects of different organic and conventional fertilisers on flavour related quality attributes of cv. golden delicious apples. Food Sci Technol 59:964–972Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Aprea E, Corollaro ML, Betta E, Endrizzi I, Demattè ML, Biasioli F, Gasperi F (2012) Sensory and instrumental profiling of 18 apple cultivars to investigate the relation between perceived quality and odour and flavor. Food Res Int 49:677–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Taiti C, Costa C, Guidi Nissim W, Bibbiani S, Azzarello E, Masi E, Pandolfi C, Pallottino F, Menesatti P, Mancuso S (2016) Assessing VOC emission by different wood cores using the PTR-ToF-MS technology. Wood Sci Technol. 51:273–295. doi: 10.1007/s00226-016-0866-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Farneti B, Khomenko I, Cappellin L, Ting V, Romano A, Biasioli F, Costa G, Costa F (2015) Comprehensive VOC profiling of an apple germplasm collection by PTR-ToF-MS. Metabolomics 11:838–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Soukoulis C, Cappellin L, Aprea E, Costa F, Viola R, Märk TD, Gasperi F, Biasioli F (2013) PTR-ToF-MS, A novel, rapid, high sensitivity and non-invasive tool to monitor volatile compound release during fruit post-harvest storage: the case study of apple ripening. Food Bioprocess Tech 6:2831–2843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Farneti B, Busatto N, Khomenko I, Cappellin L, Gutierrez S, Spinelli F, Velasco R, Biasioli F, Costa G, Costa F (2015) Untargeted metabolomics investigation of volatile compounds involved in the development of apple superficial scald by PTR-ToF–MS. Metabolomics 11:341–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Steiner R (1924) Agriculture: a course of eight lectures. Rudolf Steiner Press/Bio Dynamic Agricultural Association, LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Miranda C, Girard T, Lauri PE (2006) Random sample estimates of tree mean for fruit size and colour in apple. Sci Hortic 112:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Smith RB, Lougheed EC, Franklin EW, McMillan I (1979) The starch iodine test for determining stage of maturation in apples. Can J Plant Sci 59:725–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Taiti C, Costa C, Menesatti P, Caparrotta S, Bazihizina N, Azzarello E, Petrucci WA, Masi E, Giordani E (2015) Use of volatile organic compounds and physicochemical parameters for monitoring the post-harvest ripening of imported tropical fruits. Eur Food Res Technol 241:91–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ellis AM, Mayhew CA (2014) Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry: principles and applications, John Wiley, ChichesterCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Infantino A, Aureli G, Costa C, Taiti C, Antonucci F, Menesatti P, Pallottino F, De Felice S, D’Egidio MG, Mancuso S (2015) Potential application of PTR-TOFMS for the detection of deoxynivalenol (DON) in durum wheat. Food Control 57:96–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Roussos PA, Gasparatos D (2009) Apple tree growth and overall fruit quality under organic and conventional orchard management. Sci Hortic 123:247–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chinnici F, Bendini A, Gaiani A, Riponi C (2004) Radical scavenging activities of peels and pulps from cv. Golden Delicious apples as related to their phenolic composition. J Agric Food Chem 52:4684–4689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Masi E, Taiti C, Heimler D, Vignolini P, Romani A, Mancuso S (2016) PTR-TOF-MS and HPLC analysis in the characterization of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from Italy and Iran. Food Chem 192:75–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Masi E, Romani A, Pandolfi C, Heimler D, Mancuso S (2015) PTR-ToF-MS analysis of volatile compounds in olive fruits. J Agric Food Chem 95:1428–1434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Both V, Brackmann A, Thewes FR, de Freitas Ferreira D, Wagner R (2014) Effect of storage under extremely low oxygen on the volatile composition of ‘Royal Gala’ apples. Food Chem 156:50–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lumpkin C, Fellman JK, Rudell DR, Mattheis J (2014) ‘Scarlett spur red delicious’ apple volatile production accompanying physiological disorder development during Low pO2 controlled atmosphere storage. J Agric Food Chem 62:1741–1754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Altisent R, Graell J, Lara I, López L, Echeverría G (2011) Comparison of the volatile profile and sensory analysis of ‘Golden Reinders’ apples after the application of a cold air period after ultralow oxygen (ULO) storage. J Agric Food Chem 59:6193–6201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Reis S, Rocha S, Barros A, Delgadillo I, Coimbra M (2009) Establishment of the volatile profile of ‘Bravo de Esmolfe’ apple variety and identification of varietal markers. Food Chem 113:513–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Villatoro C, Lopez ML, Echeverria G, Graell J (2009) Effect of controlled atmospheres and shelf life period on concentrations of volatile substances released by ‘Pink Lady®’ apples and on consumer acceptance. J Agric Food Chem 89:1023–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cappellin L, Costa F, Aprea E, Betta E, Gasperi F, Biasioli F (2015) Double clustering of PTR-ToF-MS data enables the mapping of QTLs related to apple fruit volatile. Sci Hortic 197:24–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Taiti C, Costa C, Menesatti P, Comparini D, Bazihizina N, Azzarello E, Masi E, Mancuso S (2015) Class-modeling approach to PTR-TOF-MS data: a peppers case study. J Agric Food Chem 95:1757–1763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ban Y, Oyama-Okubo N, Hond C, Nakayama M, Moriguchi T (2010) Emitted and endogenous volatiles in ‘Tsugaru’ apple: the mechanism of ester and (E, E)-α-farnesene accumulation. Food Chem 118:272–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Steinhaus M, Baer S, Schieberle P (2010) Sensory evaluation of commercial apple juices and relation to selected key aroma compounds. In I. Blank, M. Wüst & C. Yeretzian (eds), Expression of multidisciplinary flavour science. Proceedings of the 12th Weurman Symposium, Interlaken, Switzerland, pp 76–79Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lopez ML, Villatoro C, Fuentes T, Graell J, Lara I, Echeverría G (2007) Volatile compounds, quality parameters and consumer acceptance of ‘Pink Lady®’ apples stored in different conditions. Postharvest Biol Technol 43:55–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Echeverría G, Fuentes MT, Graell J, López ML (2004) Relationships between volatile production, fruit quality and sensory evaluation of Fuji apples stored in different atmospheres by means of multivariate analysis. J Sci Food Agric 84:5–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rowan DD, Hunt MB, Dimouro A, Alspach PA, Weskett R, Volz RK, Gardiner Se, Chagné D (2009) Profiling fruit volatiles in the progeny of a “Royal Gala” x “Granny Smith” apple (Malus x domestica) cross. J Agric Food Chem 57:7953–7961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lo Scalzo R, Testoni A, Genna A (2001) ‘Annurca’ apple fruit, a southern Italy apple cultivar: textural properties and aroma composition. Food Chem 73:333–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mehinagic E, Royer G, Symoneaux R, Jourjon F, Prost C (2006) Characterization of odor-active volatiles in apples: influence of vultivars and maturity stage. J Agric Food Chem 54:2678–2687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Costa F, Cappellin L, Zini E, Patocchi A, Kellerhalsb M, Komjanca M, Gessler C, Biasioli F (2013) QTL validation and stability for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in apple. Plant Sci 211:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Holland D, Larkov O, Bar-Ya’akov I, Bar E, Zax A, Brandeis E, Lewinsohn E (2005) Developmental and varietal differences in volatile ester formation and acetyl-CoA: Alcohol acetyl transferase activities in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit. J Agric Food Chem 53:7198–7203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Granato D, Koota A, van Rutha SM (2015) Geographical provenancing of purple grape juices from different farming systems by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry using supervised statistical techniques. J Sci Food Agric 95:2668–2677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gan HH, Soukoulis C, Fisk I (2014) Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry analysis linked with chemometrics for food classification—a case study: geographical provenance and cultivar classification of monovarietal clarified apple juices. Food Chem 146:149–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lopez ML, Lavilla T, Riba M, Vendrell M (1998) Comparison of volatile compounds in two seasons in apples: Golden Delicious and Granny Smith. J of Food Quality 21:155–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Guo J, Yue T, Yuan Y (2012) Feature selection and recognition from nonspecific volatile profiles for discrimination of apple juices according to variety and geographical origin. J Food Sci 77:C1090–C1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Veberic R (2016) The impact of production technology on plant phenolics. Horticulturae. doi: 10.3390/horticulturae2030008 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elisa Masi
    • 1
  • Cosimo Taiti
    • 1
  • Pamela Vignolini
    • 2
  • Antonio William Petrucci
    • 1
  • Edgardo Giordani
    • 1
  • Daniela Heimler
    • 1
  • Annalisa Romani
    • 2
  • Stefano Mancuso
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Agroalimentari e dell’Ambiente (DISPAA)Università di FirenzeFlorenceItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Statistica, Informatica, Applicazioni “G. Parenti” (DISIA)University of FlorenceFlorenceItaly

Personalised recommendations