European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 243, Issue 5, pp 827–834 | Cite as

Comparison of Brettanomyces yeast presence in young red wines in two consecutive vintages

  • Patrocinio Garijo
  • Ana Rosa Gutiérrez
  • Rosa López
  • Pilar Santamaría
  • Lucía González-Arenzana
  • Isabel López-Alfaro
  • Teresa Garde-Cerdán
  • Carmen Olarte
  • Susana Sanz
Original Paper

Abstract

Two hundred young wines from the D.O.Ca. Rioja (Spain) coming from two consecutive vintages, 100 wines from 2012 and 100 wines from 2013, were analysed and compared with respect to physicochemical composition and Brettanomyces presence. This microorganism was tested using two techniques: qPCR and an odorimetric test. In 2013, the harvest was characterized by late ripening, health problems with the grapes, and difficulties during vinification. Differences between 2012 and 2013 wines were found both for analytical parameters and as for the presence of the spoilage yeast, Brettanomyces, which was much more prevalent in the 2013 vintage. Moreover, the results showed that for some wines in which Brettanomyces was detected by qPCR at concentration higher than 102 cells/ml, no “Brett” character was found in the odorimetric test. This would indicate that the contamination of a wine by this yeast is not the only factor involved in spoilage. The strains of Brettanomyces, their physiological state, and viability, besides the specific composition of wine, could be important in the “Brett” character appearance. In this study, the wines which developed spoilage in the odorimetric test had slightly lower pH and alcoholic strength values, but higher levels of volatile acidity, reducing sugars and density in comparison with those wines than were not affected. Most of these factors are favourable for the development of Brettanomyces.

Keywords

Red wines Spoilage “Brett” character Harvest conditions 

References

  1. 1.
    Agnolucci M, Vigentini I, Capurso G, Merico A, Tirelli A, Compagno C, Foschino R, Nuti M (2009) Genetic diversity and physiological traits of Brettanomyces bruxelliensis strain isolated from Toscan Sangiovese wines. Int J Food Microbiol 3:238–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baleiras-Couto MM, Gomes AS, Casal M, Duarte FL (2011) Survey of yeast diversity during bottling processes using restriction analysis of 26S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Aust J Grape Wine Res 18:39–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barata A, Caldeira J, Botheleiro R, Pagliara D, Malfeito-Ferreira M, Loureiro V (2008) Survival patterns of Dekkera bruxellensis in wines and inhibitory effect of sulphur dioxide. Int J Food Microbiol 121:201–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chandra M, Madeira I, Coutinho A, Alvergaria H, Malfeito-Ferreira M (2016) Growth and volatile phenol production by Brettanomyces bruxellensis in different grapevine varieties during fermentation and in finished wine. Eur Food Res Technol 242:487–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Commission Regulation (ECC) Nº 2676/90 of 17 September 1990 determining community methods for the analysis of wines. Off J Eur Commun L272, 33 of 3 Oct 1990. (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=OJ:L:1990:272:TOC)
  6. 6.
    Conterno L, Joseph CML, Arvik TJ, Hening-Kling T, Bisson LF (2006) Genetic and physiological characterization of Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains isolated from wines. Am J Enol Vitic 57:139–147Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Coulon J, Perello MC, Lonvaud-Funel A, De Revel G, Renouf V (2010) Brettanomyces bruxellensis evolution and volatile phenols production in red wines during storage in bottles. J Appl Microbiol 108:1450–1458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Couto JA, Barbosa A, Hogg T (2005) A simple cultural method for the presumptive detection of the yeast Brettanomyces/Dekkera in wines. Lett Appl Microbiol 41:505–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dias L, Pereira-da-Silva S, Tavares M, Malfeito-Ferreira M, Loureiro V (2003) Factor affecting the production of 4-ethylphenol by the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis in enological conditions. Food Microbiol 20:377–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Divol B, Lonvaud-Funel A (2005) Evidence for viable but non culturable yeasts in botrytis-affected wine. J Appl Microbiol 99:85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Du Toit WJ, Pretorius IS, Lonvaud-Funel A (2005) The effect of sulphur dioxide and oxygen on the viability and culturability of a strain of Acetobacter pasteurianus and a strain of Brettanomyces bruxellensis isolated from wine. J Appl Microbiol 98:862–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fugelsang KC, Zoecklein CG (2003) Population dynamics and effects of Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains on Pinot noir (Vitis vinifera L.) wines. Am J Enol Vitic 54:294–300Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Garijo P, González-Arenzana L, López-Alfaro I, Garde-Cerdán T, López R, Santamaría P, Gutiérrez AR (2015) Analysis of grapes and the first stages of vinification process in wine contamination with Brettanomyces bruxellensis. Eur Food Res Technol 240:525–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gervaux V, Vincent B, Bertrant A (2002) Influence of maceration temperature and enzymes on the content of volatile phenols in Pinot Noir wines. Am J Enol Vitic 53:131–137Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hierro N, Esteve-Zarzoso B, González A, Mas A, Guillamón JM (2006) Real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR) and reverse transcription-QPCR for detection and enumeration of total yeasts in wine. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:7148–7155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kheir J, Salamech D, Strehaiano P, Brandam C, Lteif R (2013) Impact of volatile phenols and their precursors on wine quality and control measures of Brettanomyces/Dekkera yeasts. Eur Food Res Technol 237:655–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Laforgue R, Lonvaud-Funel A (2012) Hydroxycinnamic acid decarboxylase activity of Brettanomyces bruxellensis involved in volatile phenol production: relationship with cell viability. Food Microbiol 32:230–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Licker JL, Acree TE, Heníck-Kling T (1998) What is “Brett” (Brettanomyces) flavor? a preliminary investigation. In: Waterhouse AL, Ebeler SE (eds) Chemistry of wine flavor. Americam Chemical Society, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Loureiro V, Malfeito-Ferreira M (2003) Spoilage yeasts in the wine industry. Int J Food Microbiol 86:23–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Martorell P, Querol A, Fernández-Espinar MT (2005) Rapid identification and enumeration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in wine by real-time PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:6823–6830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Martorell P (2006) Desarrollo y aplicación de sistemas rápidos para la detección, identificación y caracterización de levaduras alterantes en alimentos. Tesis Doctoral. Universidad de Valencia, EspañaGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Millet V, Lonvaud-Funel A (2000) The viable but non-culturable state of wine microorganisms during storage. Lett Appl Microbiol 30:136–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mira de Orduña R (2010) Climate change associated on grape and wine quality and production. Food Res Int 43:1844–1855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Oelofse A, Pretorius IS, Du Toit M (2008) Significance of Brettanomyces and Dekkera during winemaking: a synoptic review. S Afr J Enol Vitic 29:128–144Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Phister TG, Rawsthorne H, Joseph CML, Mills DA (2007) Real-time PCR assay for detection and enumeration of Hanseniaspora species from wine and juice. Am J Enol Vitic 58:229–233Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pretorius IS (2000) Tailoring wine yeast for the new millennium: novel approaches to the ancient art of winemaking. Yeast 16:675–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Renouf V, Lonvaud-Funel A (2005) Effet microbiologique de l´usage de barriques neuves et/ou de barriques anciannes. Rev Fr Oenol 211:10–14Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Renouf V, Falcou M, Miot-Sertier C, Perello MC, De Revel G, Lonvaud-Funel A (2006) Interactions between Brettanomyces bruxellensis and other yeast species during the initial stages of winemaking. J Appl Microbiol 100:1208–1219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Renouf V, Lonvaud-Funel A (2007) Development of an enrichment medium to detect Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis, a spoilage wine yeast, on the surface of grape berries. Microbial Res 162:154–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Renouf V, Lonvaud-Funel A, Coulon J (2007) The origin of Brettanomyces bruxellensis in wines: a review. J Int Sci Vigne Vin 41:161–173Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Renouf V, Claisse O, Lonvaud-Funel A (2007) Inventory and monitoring of wine microbial consortia. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 75:149–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Salinas F, Garrido D, Ganga A, Veliz G, Martínez C (2009) Taqman real-time PCR for the detection and enumeration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in wine. Food Microbiol 26:328–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Serpagi V, Remize F, Recorbet G, Gaudot-Dumas E, Sequeira-Le Grand A, Alexandre H (2012) Characterization of the “viable but non culturable” (VBNC) state in the wine spoilage yeast Brettanomyces. Food Microbiol 30:438–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Silva P, Cardoso H, Gerós H (2004) Studies on the wine spoilage capacity of the Brettanomyces/Dekkera spp. Am J Enol Vitic 55:65–72Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Suárez R, Suárez-Lepe JA, Morata A, Calderón F (2007) The production of ethylphenols in wine by yeasts of the genera Brettanomyces and Dekkera: a review. Food Chem 102:10–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wedral D, Shewfelt R, Frank J (2010) The challenge of Brettanomyces in wine. LWT- Food Sci Technol 43:1474–1479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Willenburg E, Divol B (2012) Quantitative PCR: an appropriate tool to detect viable but not culturable Brettanomyces bruxellensis in wine. Int J Food Microbiol 160:131–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Woolfit M, Rozpedowska E, Piskur J, Wolfe KH (2007) Genome survey sequencing of the wine spoilage yeast Dekkera (Brettanomyces) bruxellensis. Eukaryot Cell 6:721–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zott K, Claisse O, Lucas P, Coulon J, Lonvaud-Funel A, Masneuf-Pomarede I (2010) Characterization of the yeast ecosystem in grape must and wine using real-time PCR. Food Microbiol 27:559–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zuehlke JM, Petrova B, Edwards CG (2013) Advances in the control of wine spoilage by Zygosaccharomyces and Dekkera/Brettanomyces. Ann Rev Sci Technol 4:57–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrocinio Garijo
    • 1
  • Ana Rosa Gutiérrez
    • 1
  • Rosa López
    • 1
  • Pilar Santamaría
    • 1
  • Lucía González-Arenzana
    • 1
  • Isabel López-Alfaro
    • 1
  • Teresa Garde-Cerdán
    • 1
  • Carmen Olarte
    • 2
  • Susana Sanz
    • 2
  1. 1.ICVV, Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y el VinoUniversidad de La RiojaLogroñoSpain
  2. 2.Área de Tecnología de los Alimentos, Departamento de Agricultura y AlimentaciónUniversidad de La RiojaLogroñoSpain

Personalised recommendations