Skip to main content

Effect of gamma radiation on the antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of honeydew honey

Abstract

A variety of honeys have been clinically tested in wound care; some of these have obtained status “medical-grade honey”. Honey-containing licensed wound care products must undergo a sterilization process by gamma radiation. However, even though the antibacterial activity of honey seems not be affected by gamma radiation, no studies have been performed to assess its influence on particular honey antibacterial compounds. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gamma radiation at the levels of 10, 20 and 30 kGy on glucose oxidase-mediated generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and bee defensin-1 in fir honeydew honey. We found that gamma radiation did not affect the overall antibacterial activity of honeydew honey; however, the concentration of defensin-1 was significantly reduced in irradiated honey. H2O2 levels were not elevated in irradiated honey when compared to non-irradiated honey. Furthermore, the antibiofilm activity of irradiated honey was not negatively affected as it effectively reduced established biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These results demonstrate that gamma radiation, at the doses mentioned above, does not result in significant alterations in the antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of honeydew honey. However, low molecular weight proteins and peptides such as defensin-1 may aggregate in irradiated honey.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. 1.

    Postmes T, van den Bogaard AE, Hazen M (1995) The sterilization of honey with cobalt 60 gamma radiation: a study of honey spiked with spores of Clostrodium botulinum and Bacillus subtilis. Experientia 51:986–989

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Midgal W, Owczarczyk HB, Kedzia B, Holderna-Kedzia E, Madajczyk D (2000) Microbial decontamination of natural honey by irradiation. Radiat Phys Chem 57:285–288

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Saxena S, Gautam S, Sharma A (2010) Microbial decontamination of honey of Indian origin using gamma radiation and its biochemical and organoleptic properties. J Food Sci 75:M19–M27

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Molan PC, Allen KL (1996) The effect of gamma-irradiation on the antibacterial activity of honey. J Pharm Pharmacol 48:1206–1209

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Sabet Jalali FS, Ehsani A, Tajik H, Ashtari S (2007) In vitro assessment of efficacy of gamma irradiation on the antimicrobial activity of iranian honey. J Anim Vet Adv 6:996–999

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Oryan A, Alemzadeh E, Moshiri A (2016) Biological properties and therapeutic activities of honey in wound healing: a narrative review and meta-analysis. J Tissue Viability 25:98–118

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Majtan J, Klaudiny J, Bohova J, Kohutova L, Dzurova M, Sediva M, Bartosova M, Majtan V (2012) Methylglyoxal-induced modifications of significant honeybee proteinous components in manuka honey: possible therapeutic implications. Fitoterapia 83:671–677

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Bucekova M, Valachova I, Kohutova L, Prochazka E, Klaudiny J, Majtan J (2014) Honeybee glucose oxidase—its expression in honeybee workers and comparative analyses of its content and H2O2-mediated antibacterial activity in natural honeys. Naturwissenschaften 101:661–670

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Majtan J, Bohova J, Prochazka E, Klaudiny J (2014) Methylglyoxal may affect hydrogen peroxide accumulation in manuka honey through the inhibition of glucose oxidase. J Med Food 17:290–293

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Fujiwara S, Imai J, Fujiwara M, Yaeshima T, Kawashima T, Kobayashi K (1990) A potent antibacterial protein in royal jelly. J Biol Chem 265:11333–11337

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Hirano H, Watanabe T (1990) Microsequencing of proteins electrotransferred onto immobilizing matrices from polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: application to an insoluble protein. Electrophoresis 11:573–580

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Valachova I, Bucekova M, Majtan J (2016) Quantification of bee-derived defensin-1 in honey by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a new approach in honey quality control. Czech J Food Sci 34 (3). doi:10.17221/422/2015-CJFS

  13. 13.

    Bang LM, Bantting C, Molan PC (2003) The effects of dilution rate on hydrogen peroxide production in honey and its implications for wound healing. J Altern Complement Med 9:267–273

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Majtan J, Bohova J, Horniackova M, Klaudiny J, Majtan V (2014) Anti-biofilm effects of honey against wound pathogens Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter cloacae. Phytother Res 28:69–75

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Majtan J, Majtanova L, Bohova J, Majtan V (2011) Honeydew honey as a potent antibacterial agent in eradication of multi-drug resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates from cancer patients. Phytother Res 25:584–587

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Majtan J, Bohova J, Horniackova M, Majtan V (2012) Anti-biofilm activity of natural honey against wound bacteria. In: Majtan J (ed) Honey: current research and clinical applications, vol 1. Nova Science Publishers Inc, New York, pp 83–106

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Vlcekova P, Krutakova B, Takac P, Kozanek M, Salus J, Majtan J (2012) Alternative treatment of gluteofemoral fistulas using honey: a case report. Int Wound J 9:100–103

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Mayer A, Slezak V, Takac P, Olejnik J, Majtan J (2014) Treatment of non-healing leg ulcers with honeydew honey. J Tissue Viability 23:94–97

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Sonntag V (1987) The chemical basis of radiation biology. Taylor and Francis, London

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Alvarez-Suarez JM, Giampieri F, Battino M (2013) Honey as a source of dietary antioxidants: structures, bioavailability and evidence of protective effects against human chronic diseases. Curr Med Chem 20:621–638

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Akagawa M, Shigemitsu T, Suyama K (2003) Production of hydrogen peroxide by polyphenols and polyphenol-rich beverages under quasi-physiological conditions. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 67:2632–2640

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Long LH, Hoi A, Halliwell B (2010) Instability of, and generation of hydrogen peroxide by, phenolic compounds in cell culture media. Arch Biochem Biophys 501:162–169

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Hussein SZ, Yusoff KM, Makpol S, Yusoff YA (2011) Antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents increase with gamma irradiation in two types of Malaysian honey. Molecules 16:6378–6395

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Khalil MI, Sulaiman SA, Alam N, Moniruzzaman M, Bai’e S, Man CN, Jamalullail SM, Gan SH (2012) Gamma irradiation increases the antioxidant properties of Tualang honey stored under different conditions. Molecules 17:674–687

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Rhoads DD, Wolcott RW, Cutting KF, Percival SL (2007) Evidence of biofilms in wounds and potential ramifications. In: Gilbert P, Allison D, Brading M, Pratten J, Spratt D, Upton M (eds) Biofilms: coming of age. BioLine, Manchaster, pp 131–143

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Bjarnsholt T, Kirketerp-Moller K, Jensen PO, Madsen KG, Phipps R, Krogfelt K, Hoiby N, Givskov M (2008) Why chronic wounds will not heal: a novel hypothesis. Wound Repair Regen 16:2–10

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Davis SC, Ricotti C, Cazzaniga A, Welsh E, Eagistein WH, Mertz PM (2008) Microscopic and physiologic evidence for biofilm-associated wound colonization in vivo. Wound Repair Regen 16:23–29

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Merckoll P, Jonassen TO, Vad ME, Jeansson SL, Melby KK (2009) Bacteria, biofilm and honey: a study of the effects of honey on ‘planktonic’ and biofilm-embedded chronic wound bacteria. Scand J Infect Dis 41:341–347

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Okhiria OA, Henriques AFM, Burton NF, Peters A, Cooper RA (2009) Honey modulates biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a time and dose dependent manner. J Api Prod Api Med Sci 1:6–10

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Cooper R, Jenkins L, Rowlands RS (2011) Inhibition of biofilms through the use of manuka honey. Wounds UK 7:24–32

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Jervis-Bardy J, Foreman A, Bray S, Tan L, Wormald PJ (2011) Methylglyoxal-infused honey mimics the anti-Staphylococcus aureus biofilm activity of manuka honey: potential implication in chronic rhinosinusitis. Laryngoscope 121:1104–1107

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Mahmoodi-Khaledi E, Kashef N, Habibi-Rezaei M, Moosavi-Movahedi AA (2015) In vitro characterization of antibacterial potential of Iranian honey samples against wound bacteria. Eur Food Res Technol 241:329–339

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Truchado P, Lopez-Galvez F, Gil MI, Tomas-Barberan FA, Allende A (2009) Quorum sensing inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of honeys and the relationship with individual phenolics. Food Chem 115:1337–1344

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Lee JH, Park JH, Kim JA, Neupane GP, Cho MH, Lee CS, Lee J (2011) Low concentrations of honey reduce biofilm formation, quorum sensing, and virulence in Escherichia coli O157:H7. Biofouling 27:1095–1104

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under contract No. APVV-0115-11.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Juraj Majtan.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

None.

Compliance with ethics requirements

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 488 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Horniackova, M., Bucekova, M., Valachova, I. et al. Effect of gamma radiation on the antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of honeydew honey. Eur Food Res Technol 243, 81–88 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-016-2725-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Honey
  • Antibacterial activity
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Defensin-1
  • Gamma irradiation
  • Biofilm