Lactic acid bacteria communities in must, alcoholic and malolactic Tempranillo wine fermentations, by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods
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The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) communities from must and through alcoholic (AF) and malolactic fermentations (MLF) of Tempranillo red wines were studied in ten wineries from the Designation of Origin Rioja during three consecutive vintages. A statistical study with data from both methods, PCR-DGGE and plating, was performed. Results showed that the LAB community in the D.O. Rioja was highly determined by the type of fermentation and also by the different stages within the winemaking, while other factors such as year, winery, or sampling subzones had not significant effect on the LAB species distribution. Three microbial families, seven genera, and 25 species were described in this research, and Lactobacillus was the most commonly detected genus before MLF. Curiously, genera and species not frequently detected in wines as Weissella, Fructobacillus, and Oenococcus kitaharae were identified during AF, and no-Oenococcus oeni species were described in some MLF by both methods. For the first time, two new O. oeni allelic groups were determined by 16S rDNA/DGGE being randomly adapted to the wine environment. Further studies targeted to understand the implication of the novel species, and O. oeni allelic groups in Rioja wine fermentations could be really interesting.
KeywordsLactic acid bacteria DGGE O. oeni alleles Distribution Ecology
This work was supported by funding and predoctoral grant (B.O.R. 6th March, 2009) of the Government of La Rioja, the I.N.I.A. Project RTA2007-00104-00-00 and it was possible thanks to the collaborating wineries.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Compliance with Ethics Requirements
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
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