European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 242, Issue 3, pp 431–439 | Cite as

Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in flavored phytosterol-enriched drinking yogurts during storage: formation and matrix interferences

  • Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc
  • Mara Mandrioli
  • Maria Teresa Rodriguez-EstradaEmail author
  • Sevastiţa MusteEmail author
  • Giovanni Lercker
Original Paper


The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) in flavored phytosterol-enriched drinking yogurts during storage, with particular attention to matrix interference. Two phytosterol-enriched drinking yogurts (with white vanilla-WV and blood orange-BO) were kept under controlled conditions (16 h light at 25 °C/8 h dark at 15 °C) for 64 h. During the TBARs assay, a yellow complex was formed. The UV–Vis spectra showed two absorption bands around 450 and 530 nm, respectively. In both flavored phytosterol-enriched drinking yogurts, the more intense absorption was around 450 nm. In conclusion, the development of TBA adducts leads to a higher overestimation of TBARs at 450 nm. The study of TBA reaction with some of the matrix compounds shows that propanal, pentanal, hexanal, p-anisaldehyde, and vanillin favor TBARs450 formation. Instead, acetaldehyde, nonanal, lactose, decanal, t-cinnamaldehyde, octanal, limonene, and lactic acid favor TBARs530 formation. The interference of volatile compounds in the TBARs assay is much higher in BO.


TBARs Flavored phytosterol-enriched drinking yogurt Aldehydes Lipid oxidation Storage 



This study was partly supported by the POSDRU/89/1.5/S/62371 project from Romania, as a postdoctoral training fellowship. The authors thank Dr. Lorenzo Barbanti for lending the room with control environmental conditions and Dr. Andrea Borsari of Granarolo s.p.a. (Bologna) for providing samples of flavored phytosterol-enriched drinking yogurt.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Compliance with Ethics Requirements

This study does not contain any experiment involving human or animal subjects.


  1. 1.
    Aubourg SP (1993) Interaction of malondialdehyde with biological molecules—new trends about reactivity and significance. Int J Food Sci Technol 28:323–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    De las Heras A, Schoch A, Gibis M, Fischer A (2003) Comparison of methods for determining malondialdehyde in dry sausage by HPLC and the classic TBA test. Eur Food Res Technol 217:180–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    King RL (1962) Oxidation of milk fat globule membrane material. I. Thiobarbituric acid reaction as measure of oxidized flavour milk and model systems. J Dairy Sci 45:1165–1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kosugi H, Kikugawa K (1985) Thiobarbituric acid reaction of aldehydes and oxidized lipids in glacial acetic acid. Lipids 20:915–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Guillén-Sans R, Guzmán-Chozas M (1998) The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reaction in foods: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 38:315–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fenaille F, Mottier P, Turesky RJ, Ali S, Guy PA (2001) Comparison of analytical techniques to quantify malondialdehyde in milk powders. J Chromatogr A 921:237–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Salih AM, Smith DM, Price JF, Dawson LE (1987) Modified extraction 2-thiobarbituric acid method for measuring lipid oxidation in poultry. Poult Sci 66:1483–1488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ott A, Fay LB, Chaintreau A (1997) Determination and origin of the aroma impact compounds of yogurt flavor. J Agric Food Chem 45:850–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ott A, Germond JE, Baumgartner M, Chaintreau A (1999) Aroma comparisons of traditional and mild yogurts: headspace gas chromatography quantification of volatiles and origin of α-diketones. J Agric Food Chem 47:2379–2385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Alonso L, Fraga MJ (2001) Simple and rapid analysis for quantitation of the most important volatile flavor compounds in yogurt by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr Sci 39:297–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Frederiksen CS, Haugaard VK, Poll L, Miquel Becker E (2003) Light-induced quality changes in plain yoghurt packed in polylactate and polystyrene. Eur Food Res Technol 217:61–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Carrillo-Carrión C, Cárdenas S, Valćarcel M (2007) Vanguard/rearguard strategy for the evaluation of the degradation of yoghurt samples based on the direct analysis of the volatiles profile through headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1141:98–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tarladgis BG, Pearson AM, Dugan LR Jr (1964) Chemistry of the 2-thiobarbituric acid test for determination of oxidative rancidity in foods. II. Formation of the TBA malonaldehyde complex without acid heat treatment. J Sci Food Agric 15:602–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Witte VC, Krause GF, Bailey ME (1970) A new extraction method for determining 2-thiobarbituric acid values of pork and beef during storage. J Food Sci 35:582–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Robards K, Kerr AF, Patsalides E (1988) Rancidity and its measurement in edible oils and snack foods. A review. Analyst 113:213–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vichi S, Pizzale L, Conte LS, Buxaderas S, López-Tamames E (2003) Solid-phase microextraction in the analysis of virgin olive oil volatile fraction: modifications induced by oxidation and suitable markers of oxidative status. J Agric Food Chem 51:6564–6571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cardoso DR, Libardi SH, Skibsted LH (2012) Riboflavin as a photosensitizer. Effects on human health and food quality. Food Funct 3:487–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ng TB, Liu F, Wang ZT (2000) Antioxidative activity of natural products from plants. Life Sci 66:709–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Londoño-Londoño J, Rodriguez de Lima V, Jaramillo C, Crecsynski Pasa T (2010) Hesperidin and hesperetin membrane interaction: understanding the role of 7-O-glycoside moiety in flavonoids. Arch Biochem Biophys 499:6–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Guzmán-Chozas M, Vicario IM, Guillén-Sans R (1997) Spectrophotometric profiles of off-flavor aldehydes by using their reactions with 2-thiobarbituric acid. J Agric Food Chem 45:2452–2457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Almandós ME, Giannini DH, Ciarlo AS, Boeri RL (1986) Formaldehyde as an interference of the 2-thiobarbituric acid test. J Sci Food Agric 37:54–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lindmark Månsson H (2008) Fatty acids in bovine milk fat. Food Nutr Res 52:1–3Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stapelfeldt H, Nielsen BR, Skibsted LH (1997) Effect of heat treatment, water activity and storage temperature on the oxidative stability of whole milk powder. Int Dairy J 7:331–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hedegaard RV, Kristensen D, Nielson JH, FrøstMB Østdal H, Hermansen JE, Kröger-Ohlsen M, Skibsted LH (2006) Comparison of descriptive sensory analysis and chemical analysis for oxidative changes in milk. J Dairy Sci 89:495–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Patton S, Kurtz GW (1955) A note on the thiobarbituric acid test for milk oxidation. J Dairy Sci 38:901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jennings WG, Dunkley WL, Reiber HG (1955) Studies of certain red pigments formed from 2-thiobarbituric acid. J Food Sci 20:13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cheng H (2010) Volatile flavor compounds in yogurt: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 50:938–950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Routray W, Mishra HN (2011) Scientific and technical aspects of yogurt aroma and taste: a review. Compr Rev Food Sci Food 10:208–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kaminarides S, Stamou P, Massouras T (2007) Comparison of the characteristics of set type yoghurt made from ovine milk of different fat content. Int J Food Sci Technol 42:1019–1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Laye I, Karleskind D, Morr CV (1993) Chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of plain nonfat yogurt. J Food Sci 58:991–995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hruškar M, Vahčić N, Ritz M (1995) Aroma profiles and sensory evaluation of yogurt during storage. Mljekarstvo 45:175–190Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Güler Z, Taşdelen A, Şenol H, Kerimoğlu N, Temel U (2009) The determination of volatile compounds in set-type yogurt using static headspace gas chromatographic method. Gida 34:137–142Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Güler Z, Gürsoy-Balci AC (2011) Evaluation of volatile compounds and free fatty acids in set types yogurts made of ewes’, goats’ milk and their mixture using two different commercial starter cultures during refrigerated storage. Food Chem 127:1065–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Erkaya T, Şengül M (2011) Comparison of volatile compounds in yoghurts made from cows’, buffaloes’, ewes’ and goats’ milks. Int J Dairy Technol 64:240–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Şenel E (2011) Some carbonyl compounds and free fatty acid composition of Afyon Kaymagı (clotted cream) and their effects on aroma and flavor. Grasas Aceites 62:418–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Saint-Eve A, Lévy C, Le Moigne M, Ducruet V, Souchon I (2008) Quality changes in yogurt during storage in different packaging materials. Food Chem 110:285–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kora EP, Souchon I, Latrille E, Martin N, Marin M (2004) Composition rather than viscosity modifies the aroma compound retention of flavored stirred yogurt. J Agric Food Chem 52:3048–3056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gocmen D, Gurbuz O, Rouseff RL, Smoot JM, Dagdelen AF (2004) Gas chromatographic-olfactometric characterization of aroma active compounds in sun-dried and vacuum-dried tarhana. Eur Food Res Technol 218:573–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Matthäus B, Rubner M (2010) In: Decker EA, Elias RJ, McClements DJ (eds) Oxidation in food and beverages and antioxidant applications, vol 2: management in different industry sectors. Woodhead Publishing, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Beshkova D, Simova E, Frengova G, Simov Z (1998) Production of flavor compounds by yogurt starter cultures. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 20:180–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Harasawa N, Tateba H, Ishizuka N, Wakayama T, Kishino K, Ono M (1998) Flavor deterioration in yogurt. Adv Exp Med Biol 434:285–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Adhicari K, Grün IU, Mustapha A, Fernando LN (2002) Changes in the profile of organic acids in plain set and stirred yogurts during manufacture and refrigerated storage. J Food Qual 25:435–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Seckin AK, Ozkilinc AY (2011) Effect of some prebiotics usage on quality properties of concentrated yogurt. J Anim Vet Adv 10:1117–1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    De Jager LS, Perfetti GA, Diachenko GW (2008) Comparison of headspace-SPME-GC-MS and LC-MS for the detection and quantification of coumarin, vanillin, and ethyl vanillin in vanilla extract products. Food Chem 107:1701–1709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    McSweeney PLH, Sousa MJ (2000) Biochemical pathways for the production of flavor compounds in cheeses during ripening: a review. Lait 80:293–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food EngineeringUniversity of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-NapocaCluj-NapocaRomania
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural and Food SciencesAlma Mater Studiorum-Università di BolognaBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations