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Table 3 Concentrations of aldehydes and esters in the obtained distillates

From: Comparison of fermentation results and quality of the agricultural distillates obtained by application of commercial amylolytic preparations and cereal malts

Raw material Fermentation by-products
mg L−1 100 % vol. alcohol
Acetaldehyde Furfural Hexanal Benzaldehyde Ethyl acetate Ethyl butyrate 3-Methyl butyl acetate Hexyl acetate Ethyl caproate Ethyl caprylate Ethyl benzoate
Unmalted rye (Dańkowskie Diament cultivar) 135.82g ± 2.56 18.29a ± 1.39 2.29a ± 0.19 0.20a ± 0.03 138.55a ± 7.02 0.34a ± 0.02 2.96b ± 0.09 0.07a ± 0.001 6.81d ± 0.72 6.49a ± 0.38 0.14ab ± 0.01
Unmalted rye (70 %) and wheat malt (30 %) 74.52d ± 1.85 18.58a ± 1.06 2.4a ± 0.53 0.15a ± 0.04 221.86c ± 13.92 0.46c ± 0.02 3.82d ± 0.13 0.09b ± 0.001 5.01a ± 0.39 8.89b ± 0.88 0.16bc ± 0.01
Unmalted rye (70 %) and rye malt (30 %) 54.93b ± 0.56 47.38b ± 0.87 2.29a ± 0.79 0.19a ± 0.05 241.42 cd ± 22.22 0.39b ± 0.01 2.11b ± 0.07 0.10c ± 0.003 5.74bc ± 0.31 10.89c ± 0.69 0.12a ± 0.01
Unmalted rye (70 %) and barley malt (30 %) 90.26e ± 1.95 77.83d ± 1.54 2.04a ± 0.17 0.25ab ± 0.07 275.53d ± 22.41 0.55e ± 0.01 4.31de ± 0.67 0.13d ± 0.004 5.64abc ± 0.36 12.95d ± 0.90 0.20cd ± 0.04
Unmalted rye (50 %) and wheat malt (50 %) 36.06a ± 0.35 84.45e ± 2.61 2.93a ± 0.31 0.21 ± ab0.05 349.14e ± 22.42 0.53de ± 0.04 2.94b ± 0.24 0.10c ± 0.005 6.68cd ± 0.71 14.31d ± 0.95 0.17bcd ± 0.03
Unmalted rye (50 %) and rye malt (50 %) 98.32f ± 1.89 117.23f ± 0.80 2.61a ± 1.01 0.16a ± 0.02 457.87f ± 24.99 0.51d ± 0.02 1.65a ± 0.03 0.06a ± 0.001 5.37ab ± 0.44 11.04c ± 0.57 0.16bc ± 0.02
Unmalted rye (50 %) and barley malt (50 %) 70.19c ± 0.74 61.61c ± 0.77 2.44a ± 0.78 0.23b ± 0.02 164.00b ± 13.98 0.53de ± 0.01 4.42e ± 0.43 0.16e ± 0.01 5.43ab ± 0.28 17.02e ± 1.47 0.25d ± 0.05
  1. Results expressed as mean values ± SE (n = 3); mean values in columns with different letters are significantly different (p < 0.05)