Mineral and volatile composition of água-mel from Portugal
- 189 Downloads
Água-mel (honey–water) is a typical honey-based product produced by the Portuguese beekeepers, particularly in southern Portugal. Água-mel was characterized by mineral content and volatiles contents. Mineral content evaluation was performed based on a random sampling of 14 samples from a total of 16 samples provided by local producers. Mineral content showed that potassium predominated in água-mel samples (1270–4105 mg/kg). The concentration of aluminium in one sample was tenfold higher (5.8 mg/kg) than in the remaining samples (0.3–0.6 mg/kg). Água-mel volatiles were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) from a subset of eight samples. Cluster analysis showed two poorly correlated clusters (S corr < 0.3). Cluster I only sample was dominated by trans-β-ocimene (19 %), γ-terpinene (15 %) and 2-furfural (9 %). Cluster II that included the remaining seven samples showed two moderately correlated subclusters (S corr < 0.5). The six samples with high correlation from subcluster IIa were dominated by 2-furfural (18–41 %) and benzene acetaldehyde (12–39 %). n-Nonadecane (14 %), n-heneicosane and 2-furfural (both 13 %) were the main components of subcluster IIb sample. Although the presence of some volatile compounds can help in the correlation between água-mel and honey botanical source, the final product varies largely according to the preparation process even for the same producer, in different years. Água-mel detailed characterization may assist in bringing added value to this typical Portuguese honey-based product.
KeywordsPortugal Água-mel Honey Mineral composition Volatiles
Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
This study was partially funded by Ministério da Agricultura, Mar, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Território (Portugal) under research contract Programa Apícola Nacional 2011–2013, Medida 6A, and by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT), under Pest–OE/EQB/LA0023/2011 and UID/AMB/50017/2013.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Compliance with Ethics Requirements
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
- 6.Miguel MG, Antunes MD, Aazza S, Duarte J, Faleiro ML (2013) Ital J Food Sci 25:275–282Google Scholar
- 8.Council of Europe (COE) European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines (2007) European Pharmacopoeia 6th edn. Strasbourg, FranceGoogle Scholar
- 10.Rohlf JF NTSYS-pc (2000) Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System. Applied Biostatistics, Port Jefferson, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 11.Pestana MH, Gageiro JN (2000) Análise de dados para ciências sociais. A complementaridade do SPSS. Edições Sílabo, LisboaGoogle Scholar
- 20.Wolski T, Tambor K, Rybak-Chmielewska H, Kedzia B (2006) J Apic Sci 50(2):115–126Google Scholar
- 23.Linstrom PJ, Mallard WG (eds) NIST chemistry webbook, NIST standard reference database number 69, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD, 20899, http://webbook.nist.gov. Accessed May 2015
- 24.Joulain D, Köning WA (1998) The atlas of spectral data of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. E.B.-Verlag, HamburgGoogle Scholar