Skip to main content
Log in

Physico-chemical properties of botrytised Chenin blanc grapes to assess the extent of noble rot

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
European Food Research and Technology Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The production of botrytised wines involves grapes with high sugar concentration and complex aromas caused by the presence of noble rot. The aim of this paper was to characterise botrytised grapes on a physico-chemical basis and therefore identify markers of its evolution. Colour analysis, compression and puncture tests and phenolic profiles were performed in order to identify the potential markers and discriminating tools for the presence of the fungus. Chenin blanc grapes from two parcels in Loire Valley (France) were sampled during a 4-week period. Significant changes of phenolic composition like the total polyphenol which decreases up to 40 % were observed as B. cinerea was more advanced on the berries. Myricetin a compound that has not been reported before in white grapes was found only in highly affected berries. At the same time as the level of infection increases, the presence of the fungus seems to induce, from one side, an increase of catechin, epicatechin and epicatechin gallate, and from the other side, the decrease in caftaric acid, coutaric acid, quercetin-3 glucoside and kaempferol-3 glucoside. Puncture tests appeared to be the more reliable mechanical tool to differentiate between infection levels by itself; however, the combination of puncture and compression tests with colour showed a more significant and clear differentiation. This combination appeared to be the most adequate for stablish markers of noble rot evolution in the conditions studied. A decrease in mechanical resistance of berries’ skin (measured by the maximum puncture force required for skin rupture) was observed during infection. These results on botrytised Chenin grapes are new and provide a novel approach for an objective measurement of noble rot in Chenin grapes.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Magyar I (2011) Botrytized wines. Adv Food Nutr Res 63:147–206

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Carey V, Barbeau G, Cadot Y, Conradie WJ & Vermeulen A (2004) The implications of terroir for development of Botrytis cinerea into grey rot or noble rot on grapes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chenin blanc. OIV Congress, Vienna, Austria, July 4–9 2004

  3. Ribéreau-Gayon P, Dubourdieu D, Donèche B, Lonvaud A (2005) Handbook of enology, the microbiology of wine and vinifications. Wiley, ISBN: 0-470-01034-7

  4. Jackson R (2008) Wine Science Principles, Practice, Perception. San Diego. Academic Press, ISBN 012379062X, 9780123790620

  5. Maury C, Madieta E, Le Moigne M, Mehinagic E, Siret R, Jourjon F (2009) Development of a mechanical texture test to evaluate the ripening process of Cabernet franc grapes. J Texture Stud 40(5):511–535

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Zouid I, Siret R, Mehinagic E, Maury C, Chevalier M, Jourjon F (2010) Evolution of grape berries during ripening: investigations into the links between their mechanical properties and the extractability of their skin anthocyanins. J Int des Sci de la Vigne et du Vin 44(1):39–51

    Google Scholar 

  7. Landrault N, Larronde F, Delaunay J, Castagnino C, Vercauteren C, Merillon J, Gasc F, Cros G, Teissedre P (2002) Levels of stilbene oligomers and astilbin in French varietal wines and in grapes during noble rot development. J Agric Food Chem 50(7):2046–2052

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Figueiredo-González M, Cancho-Grande B, Simal-Gándara J (2013) Effects on colour and phenolic composition of sugar concentration processes in dried-on- or dried-off-vine grapes and their aged or not natural sweet wines. Trends Food Sci Technol 31(1):36–54. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2013.02.004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Mané C, Souquet J, Ollé F, Verriés C, Véran F, Mazerolles G, Cheynier V, Fulcrand H (2007) Optimization of simultaneous flavanol, phenolic acid, and anthocyanin extraction from grapes using an experimental design: application to the characterization of Champagne grape varieties. J Agric Food Chem 55(18):7224–7233

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Kallithraka S, Garcia-Viguera C, Bridle P, Bakker J (2007) Survey of solvents for the extraction of grape seed phenolics. Phytochemical Analysis—Wiley Online Library. doi:10.1002/pca.2800060509

    Google Scholar 

  11. Salas E, Dueas M, Schwarz M, Winterhalter P, Cheynier V, Fulcrand H (2005) Characterization of pigments from different high speed countercurrent chromatography wine fractions. J Agric Food Chem 53(11):4536–4546

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Flanzy C (2003) Œnologie : fondements scientifiques et technologiques, Editions Tech et Doc

  13. Deytieux C, Geny L, Lapaillerie D, Claverol S, Bonneu M, Doneche B (2007) Proteome analysis of grape skins during ripening. J Exp Bot 58:1851–1862

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Rolle L, Giordano M, Giacosa S, Vincenzi S, Río Segade S, Torchio F, Perrone B, Gerbi V (2012) CIEL*a*b* parameters of white dehydrated grapes as quality markers according to chemical composition, volatile profile and mechanical properties. Anal Chim Acta 732:105–113

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Doumouya S, Lahaye M, Maury C, Siret R (2014) Physical and Physiological Heterogeneity within the Grape Bunch: impact on Mechanical Properties during Maturation. Am J Enol Vitic 65:170–178

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Ky I, Lorrain B, Jourdes M, Pasquier G, Fermaud M, GéNy L, Rey P, Doneche B, Teissedre P (2012) Assessment of grey mould (Noble rot) impact on phenolic and sensory quality of Bordeaux grapes, musts and wines for two consecutive vintages. Aust J Grape Wine Res 18(2):215–226. doi:10.1111/j.1755-0238.2012.00191.x

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Hong YS, Martinez A, Liger-Belair G, Jeandet P, Nuzillard J, Cilindre C (2012) metabolomics reveals simultaneous influences of plant defence system and fungal growth in noble rot-infected Vitis Vinifera cv. chardonnay berries. J Exp Bot 63(16):5773–5785

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Goetz G, Fkyerat A, Métais N, Kunz M, Tabacchi R, Pezet R, Pont V (1999) Resistance factors to grey mould in grape berries: identification of some phenolics inhibitors of noble rot stilbene oxidase. Phytochemistry 52(5):759–767

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Jeandet P, Bessis R, Gautheron B (1991) The production of resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene) by grape berries in different developmental stages. Am J Enol Vitic 42(1):41–46

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Bavaresco L, Mattivi F, De Rosso M, Flamini R (2012) Effects of elicitors, viticultural factors, and enological practices on resveratrol and stilbenes in grapevine and wine. Mini Rev Med Chem 12:1366–1381

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Roldan A, Palacios V, Caro I, Perez L (2003) Resveratrol content of Palomino fino grapes: influence of vintage and fungal infection. J Agric Food Chem 51:1464–1468

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT, México) for doctoral financing, Domaine Pierre Chauvin for the grapes and both teams involved in this project at Groupe ESA (France) and Chihuahua University (Mexico).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to D. Carbajal-Ida.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

None.

Compliance with ethics requirements

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Carbajal-Ida, D., Maury, C., Salas, E. et al. Physico-chemical properties of botrytised Chenin blanc grapes to assess the extent of noble rot. Eur Food Res Technol 242, 117–126 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-015-2523-x

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-015-2523-x

Keywords

Navigation