Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity, energy content and gastrointestinal stability of Croatian wild edible plants
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Spectrophotometric and chromatographic analysis of phenolics in water and ethanolic extracts of wild asparagus, butcher’s broom and black bryony from Croatia was conducted. Their antioxidant capacity (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assay) and energy content were determined. The gastrointestinal stability of detected phenolics was determined using a two-phase in vitro digestion method with human enzymes. The highest phenolics yield, radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant potential were recorded in 40 % ethanolic extract of black bryony, with glycosylated forms of kaempferol as dominant components. Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside were dominant phenolics in all wild asparagus extracts, and salicylic acid was predominant in butcher’s broom 40 % ethanolic extract. Phenolic acids of the three species were not stable during gastric and duodenal phases of simulated digestion. Two main black bryony kaempferol glycosides were best preserved after digestion (50 % of each). Black bryony contains more energy than wild asparagus and butcher’s broom. Accordingly, we propose black bryony as a valuable source of antioxidant kaempferol glycosides with relevant gastrointestinal stability and higher energy content than so far more conventional vegetable wild asparagus.
KeywordsKaempferol Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside Isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside Salicylic acid RP-HPLC Human digestive enzymes
The authors thank Dr. Marko Miliša (Faculty of Science, Zagreb) for technical assistance with calorimeter bomb and Dr. Viljemka Bučević-Popović (Faculty of Science, University of Split) for help in determination of human digestive juices’ enzymatic activity. This research was not financially supported.
Compliance with ethics requirements
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article contains a study with human digestive juices. The approval for the collection of digestive juices was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the University Hospital Centre Split (11/09/2014).
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