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Subcritical water extraction of phenolic compounds from flaxseed meal sticks using accelerated solvent extractor (ASE)

Abstract

Subcritical water extraction (SWE) is a technique based on the use of water as an extractant, at temperatures between 100 and 374 °C and at a pressure high enough to maintain the liquid state. SWE provides higher selectivities, low cost, and shorter extraction times. In this study, phenolic compounds in flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) meal sticks were extracted with subcritical water using accelerated solvent extractor. For this aim, the interactions between temperature (160, 170, and 180 °C) and extraction time (5, 15, 30, and 60 min) for subcritical water extraction of SDG lignan, total phenolics, and total flavonoids from flaxseed meal sticks were investigated. The highest extraction yield of SDG lignan (77.01 %) in subcritical water extracts was determined at 160 °C for 60 min. However, high extraction yields were obtained as 70.67 and 72.57 % at 170 and 180 °C for 15 min, respectively. Also, the highest extraction yield of total phenolics (70.82 %) and total flavonoids (267.14 %) were determined at 180 °C for 15 min. Besides, high correlations between SDG lignan–total phenolics, SDG lignan–total flavonoids, and total phenolics–total flavonoids were obtained from 0.86 to 1 in water extracts.

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Acknowledgments

This research was financed by TÜBİTAK as “The Support Programme for Scientific and Technological Research Projects (1001)” (project number 108O498). The authors gratefully acknowledge Aegean Agricultural Research Institute for providing flaxseed sample and Ege University Center of Drug Research & Development and Pharmacokinetic president and researchers for their technical helpings. Also, the authors would like to thank N. Bükey A.Ş. for the cold screw press of flaxseed.

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Compliance with Ethics Requirements

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

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Correspondence to Evrim Özkaynak Kanmaz.

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Kanmaz, E.Ö. Subcritical water extraction of phenolic compounds from flaxseed meal sticks using accelerated solvent extractor (ASE). Eur Food Res Technol 238, 85–91 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-013-2088-5

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Keywords

  • Subcritical water extraction
  • Accelerated solvent extractor (ASE)
  • Flaxseed meal
  • SDG lignan
  • Total phenolics
  • Total flavonoids