Amino acids and biogenic amines in red varietal wines: the role of grape variety, malolactic fermentation and vintage
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This work studies for the first time the amino acid and biogenic amine composition of Rioja red wines made with the red minority varieties Vitis vinífera cv. Monastel and Maturana Tinta de Navarrete, using Tempranillo as a reference variety. The role of malolactic fermentation and vintage on these compounds was also analysed, and discriminate analyses were applied to achieve a possible differentiation of the wines. Amino acid composition allowed a differentiation of wines according to grape variety. Monastel was characterised by the highest value in β-alanine and Maturana Tinta de Navarrete by its highest value in OH-proline. However, biogenic amines were no able to classify varietal wines. The malolactic fermentation had significant changes on the amino acid and biogenic amine content, and allowed distinguishing wines that underwent this process from wines without malolactic fermentation. No correlation was found between total amino acids and total biogenic amines after malolactic fermentation, suggesting that a higher initial concentration of amino acids in the medium did no affect the concentration of biogenic amines after malolactic fermentation. Vintage influenced the amino acid and biogenic amine pattern, obtaining a clear separation of wines by vintages. Monastel and Maturana Tinta de Navarrete wines showed a minor varietal character and were more influenced by the climatic conditions of each vintage than Tempranillo wines. All the wines showed histamine levels below the human physiological threshold and implemented regulations.
KeywordsRed minority varietal wines Amino acid and biogenic amine composition Winemaking stage Vintage
The authors would like to thank to Juan Carlos Sancha for providing the wine samples.
Conflict of interest
Compliance with Ethics Requirements
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
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