Influence of origin source, different fruit tissue and juice extraction methods on anthocyanin, phenolic acid, hydrolysable tannin and isolariciresinol contents of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits and juices
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To gain more comprehensive knowledge of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit composition and its impact on juice features, fruits and juices produced from fruits of eleven different provenances were investigated by HPLC–DAD-ESI/MSn for their monomeric phenolic and lignan profiles. Total phenolics and antioxidant capacity were monitored by the Folin-Ciocalteu, ferric reducing antioxidative power and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays. Peels, mesocarp, seeds and juices obtained from isolated arils (PJAs) as well as from entire fruits were separately analyzed. Ellagitannins were found to be the predominant phenolics in all samples except in PJAs. However, due to the low lignan amounts, only isolariciresinol could be quantitated in peels and mesocarp. The peels and mesocarp revealed highest contents of hydrolyzable tannins (27–172 g/kg and 32–263 g/kg, respectively) and isolariciresinol (4.9–19.8 mg/kg and 5.0–13.6 mg/kg, respectively). To the best of our knowledge, a systematic investigation of monomeric phenolic compounds and isolariciresinol considering diverse pomegranate fruits has been performed for the first time. The study demonstrates that raw material and extraction process have significant impact on juice composition and thus must be carefully selected. Furthermore, pomegranate processors should select juice extraction processes according to the final designation of the product, that is, distinguish between dietary products being rich in phenolic compounds having an astringent taste, and juices for consumption having an appealing taste but lower amounts of phenolics, respectively. This study may further contribute to facilitate authenticity control of diverse pomegranate products and help predict sensory and biofunctional characteristics of pomegranate juices.
KeywordsPunica granatum L. Pomegranate juices Phenolic compounds Hydrolyzable tannins Lignans Antioxidant capacity
One of the authors (U.F.) gratefully acknowledges a scholarship in the framework of the endowment fund Unilever by the association for the Promotion of Science and Humanities in Germany (Essen, Germany). We are grateful to Dr. Thilo Haßler, Walther Schoenenberger Pflanzensaftwerk GmbH & Co. KG (Magstadt, Germany) and Dr. Sanjay Nene (National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India), for providing reference components and pomegranate fruits, and we thank Erika Müssig for her excellent assistance in laboratory experiments.
Conflict of interest
Compliance with Ethics Requirements
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
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