European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 236, Issue 4, pp 735–746 | Cite as

Relation between volatile composition, ellagitannin content and sensory perception of oak wood chips representing different toasting processes

Original Paper


The evolution of both volatile and nonvolatile (ellagitannins) compounds extracted from oak wood chips while being macerated for 3 months in wine model solution with eight different commercial chips [Toasted LT (Light Toast), LT+ (Light plus Toast), MT (Medium Toast), MT+ (Medium plus Toast), HT (Heavy Toast), Noisette, Special) and un-toasted (UN)] was studied. Sensory analysis concerning vanilla, spicy, overall woody, astringency, bitterness and sweetness descriptors was conducted in parallel. A 2-month time is needed for the maximum extraction of ellagitannins and of furfural compound. Relating to other volatile compounds, their concentration increased progressively over time. Spicy, woody and vanilla aromas as well as sweetness perception increased during contact time with oak wood. Additionally to pyrolytic toasting stage, watering process during toasting influences significantly oak wood composition (lactones, vanillin guaiacol compounds and ellagitannins). Correlation analysis between chemical and sensory data demonstrated significant correlations between chemical and sensory parameters and provides some insight into the implication of volatile and nonvolatile composition on the final quality perception of astringency. A predictive model between astringency intensity and ellagitannins, furfural, guaiacol and methyl guaiacol contents was established. Ellagitannins levels explained 45 %, guaiacol and methyl guaiacol contents interpreted 13.20 and 8.86 %, respectively, whereas furfural levels justified 5.66 % of the total astringency variance.


Oak wood Volatile compounds Ellagitannins Astringency Predictive model 



The authors gratefully thank Dr. Tempère Sophie for her essential advices in the training of the judges as well as the judges who participated in the sensory analyses. We also thank Dr. Warren Albertin for her suggestions in statistical analysis.

Conflict of interest


Compliance with Ethics Requirements

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.


  1. 1.
    Scalbert A, Monties B, Favre JM (1988) Polyphenols of Quercus obur: adult tree and in vitro grown calli and shoots. Phytochemistry 27:3483–3488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nonier MF, Vivas N, Vivas De Gaulejac N, Absalon C, Vitry C, Fouquet E (2005) Global fractionation of oak heartwood extractable polymers (lignins, polysaccharides and ellagitannins) by selective precipitations. J Sci Food Agric 85:343–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Herve du Penhoat CLM, Michon VMF, Ohassan A, Peng S, Scalbert A, Gage D, Roburin A (1991) A dimeric ellagitannin from heartwood of Quercus robur. Phytochemistry 30:329–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hervé Du, Penhoat CLM, Michon VMF, Peng S, Viriot C, Scalbert A, Gage D (1991) Structural elucidation of new dimeric ellagitannins from Quercus robur L. roburins A-E. J Chem Soc Perkin Trans 1:1653–1660Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Michel J, Jourdes M, Silva MA, Giordanengo T, Mourey N, Teissedre PL (2011) Impact of concentration of ellagitannins in oak wood on their levels and organoleptic influence in red wine. J Agric Food Chem 59:5677–5683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Glabasnia A, Hofmann T (2006) Sensory-directed identification of taste-active ellagitannins in American (Quercus alba L.) and European oak wood (Quercus robur L.) and quantitative analysis in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines. J Agric Food Chem 54:3380–3390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sáenz-Navajas MP, Fernández-Zurbano P, Ferreira V (2012) Contribution of nonvolatile composition to wine flavor. Food Rev Int 28:389–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stark T, Wollmann N, Wenker K, Lösch S, Glabasnia A, Hofmann T (2010) Matrix-calibrated LC-MS/MS quantitation and sensory evaluation of oak ellagitannins and their transformation products in red wines. J Agric Food Chem 58:6360–6369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Del Alamo Sanza M, Escudero JAF, De Castro Torío R (2004) Changes in phenolic compounds and colour parameters of red wine aged with oak chips and in oak barrels. Food Sci Technol Int 10:233–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Del Alamo Sanza M, Nevares Domínguez I (2006) Wine aging in bottle from artificial systems (staves and chips) and oak woods: Anthocyanin composition. Anal Chim Acta 563:255–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Frangipane MT, Santis DD, Ceccarelli A (2007) Influence of oak woods of different geographical origins on quality of wines aged in barriques and using oak chips. Food Chem 103:46–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Arapitsas P, Antonopoulos A, Stefanou E, Dourtoglou VG (2004) Artificial aging of wines using oak chips. Food Chem 86:563–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Del Alamo Sanza M, Nevares Domínguez I, Cárcel Cárcel LM, Navas Gracia L (2004) Analysis for low molecular weight phenolic compounds in a red wine aged in oak chips. Anal Chim Acta 513:229–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    De Coninck G, Jordão AM, Ricardo-Da-Silva JM, Laureano O (2006) Evolution of phenolic composition and sensory properties in red wine aged in contact with Portuguese and French oak wood chips. Journal International des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin 40:25–34Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gallego L, Del Alamo M, Nevares I, Fernández JA, De Simón BF, Cadahía E (2012) Phenolic compounds and sensorial characterization of wines aged with alternative to barrel products made of Spanish oak wood (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.). Food Sci Technol Int 18:151–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Guchu E, D-MM C, Pérez-Coello MS, González-Viñas MA, Cabezudo Ibáñez MD (2006) Volatile composition and sensory characteristics of Chardonnay wines treated with American and Hungarian oak chips. Food Chem 99:350–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Campbell JI, Sykes M, Sefton MA, Pollnitz AP (2005) The effects of size, temperature and air contact on the outcome of heating oak fragments. Aust J Grape Wine Res 11:348–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sauvageot F, Feuillat F (1999) The influence of oak wood (Quercus robur L., Q. petraea Liebl.) on the flavor of Burgundy Pinot noir. An examination of variation among individual trees. Am J Enol Vitic 50:447–455Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Masson E, Baumes R, Moutounet M, Puech JL (2000) The effect of kiln-drying on the levels of ellagitannins and volatile compounds of European oak (Quercus petraea Liebl.) stave wood. Am J Enol Vitic 51:201–214Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rodríguez-Rodríguez P, Gómez-Plaza E (2011) Differences in the extraction of volatile compounds from oak chips in wine and model solutions. Am J Enol Vitic 62:127–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Barbe JC, Bertrand A (1996) Quantitative analysis of volatile compounds stemming from oak wood. Application to the aging of wines in barrels. J Cooperage Sci Technol 2:83–88Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Peng S, Scalbert A, Monties B (1991) Insoluble ellagitannins in Castanea sativa and Quercus petraea woods. Phytochemistry 30:775–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    ISO (2008) 8586-22 Sensory analysis—General guidance for the selection, training and monitoring of assessors—Part 2: expert sensory assessorsGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jackson RS (2009) Wine tasting: a professional handbook. Academic Press, BurlingtonGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    ISO (1997) 3591 Sensory analysis—Apparatus—Wine-tasting glass, p 3Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    ISO (1988) 8589 Sensory analysis. Guide for the installation of a chamber for sensory analysis, p 9Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ancín C, Garde T, Torrea D, Jimenez N (2004) Extraction of volatile compounds in model wine from different oak woods: effect of SO2. Food Res Int 37:375–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cerdán TG, Rodríguez Mozaz S, Ancín Azpilic C (2002) Volatile composition of aged wine in used barrels of French oak and of American oak. Food Res Int 35:603–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Prida A, Heymann H, Balanuta A, Puech JL (2009) Relation between chemical composition of oak wood used in cooperage and sensory perception of model extracts. J Sci Food Agric 89:765–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cutzach I, Chatonnet P, Henry R, Dubourdieu D (1997) Identification of volatile compounds with a “Toasty” aroma in heated oak used in barrel making. J Agric Food Chem 45:2217–2224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Singleton VL (1995) Maturation of wines and spirits: comparisons, facts, and hypotheses. Am J Enol Vitic 46:98–115Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Spillman PJ, Pocock KF, Gawel R, Sefton MA. (1996). The influences of oak, coopering heat and microbial activity on oak-derived wine aroma. In: Paper presented at the ninth Australian wine industry technical conference, Winetitles, Adelaide, South AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chatonnet P, Boidron JN, Pons M (1989) Incidence du traitement thermique du bois de chêne sur sa composition chimique. 2e Partie: Evolution de certains composés en fonction de l’intensité de brûlage. Connaiss Vigne Vin 23:223–250Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Doussot F, De Jéso B, Quideau S, Pardon P (2002) Extractives content in cooperage oak wood during natural seasoning and toasting; influence of tree species, geographic location, and single-tree effects. J Agric Food Chem 50:5955–5961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mosedale JR, Puech J-L, Feuillat F (1999) The influence on wine flavor of the oak species and natural variation of heartwood components. Am J Enol Vitic 50:503–512Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    García-Carpintero EG, Gómez Gallego MA, Sánchez-Palomo E, González Viñas MA (2012) Sensory descriptive analysis of Bobal red wines treated with oak chips at different stages of winemaking. Aust J Grape Wine Res 17:368–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Boidron J-N, Chatonnet PMP (1988) Influence du bois sur certaines substances odorantes des vins (Effects of wood on aroma compounds of wine). Connaiss Vigne Vin 22:275–294Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ISVV, EA 4577, ŒnologieUniv. BordeauxVillenave d’OrnonFrance
  2. 2.INRA, ISVV, USC 1366 ŒnologieVillenave d’OrnonFrance

Personalised recommendations