European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 236, Issue 4, pp 725–733 | Cite as

Simultaneous pre-concentration of Pb and Sn in food samples and determination by atomic absorption spectrometry

  • Halil İbrahim Ulusoy
  • Ümmügülsüm Aksoy
  • Mehmet Akçay
Original Paper


A cloud point extraction (CPE) method has been developed for the pre-concentration and simultaneous determination of lead [Pb(II)] and tin [Sn(II)] using Acridine Orange as complexing reagent and mediated by nonionic surfactant (Triton X-114) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The main factors affecting analytical performance of CPE have been investigated in detail. The extracted surfactant-rich phase was diluted with (1.0 mol L−1) nitric acid in methanol, prior to subjecting FAAS. The calibration graphs obtained from Pb(II) and Sn(II) were linear in the concentration ranges of 5–1,000 and 10–5,000 μg L−1 with detection limits of 1.40 and 2.86 μg L−1, respectively. The relative standard deviations for 10 replicates containing 25 μg L−1 of Pb(II) and Sn(II) were 2.15 and 2.50 %, respectively. The analytical procedure was verified by the analysis of the standard reference materials NWTMDA-61.2 (water-trace elements) and NIST SRM 1548a (typical diet). The developed method has been applied to the simultaneous determination of total Pb and Sn in canned food samples including juices, tomato paste, corn, and green pea.


Lead Tin Acridine Orange Cloud point extraction Food samples 



This study has been supported by Cumhuriyet University Scientific Research Projects Commission as the research projects with the F-367 code.

Conflict of interest


Compliance with Ethics Requirements

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Halil İbrahim Ulusoy
    • 1
  • Ümmügülsüm Aksoy
    • 2
  • Mehmet Akçay
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of PharmacyCumhuriyet UniversitySivasTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of SciencesCumhuriyet UniversitySivasTurkey

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