European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 235, Issue 4, pp 719–728 | Cite as

Effects of Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis addition on viability of probiotic bacteria in yogurt and its biochemical properties

  • Hannane Beheshtipour
  • Amir Mohammad Mortazavian
  • Parivash Haratian
  • Kianoosh Khosravi Darani
Original Paper

Abstract

It is a practice to add microalgae into plain and probiotic fermented milks in order to promote the functionality of these products via their direct health effects as well as the enhancing impact on viability of probiotic microorganisms in product and in gastrointestinal tract. In this study, the effects of addition of two species of microalgae including Arthrospira platensis and Chlorella vulgaris (seven yogurt treatments containing three concentrations for each microalgae—0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 %—and a control without microalgae) on pH, titrable acidity, and redox potential changes as well as on the viability of probiotic bacteria during fermentation and during a 28-day refrigerated storage period (5 °C) were investigated in yogurt. Also, the amounts of lactic and acetic acids at the end of fermentation were assessed. The culture composition of yogurt was ABY type, containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and Stresptococcus themophilus. The addition of microalgae significantly (p < 0.05) increased the viability of L. acidophilus and bifdobacteria at the end of fermentation and during the storage period. Treatments containing A. platensis had slower pH decline, faster acidity increase, longer incubation time, and greater final titrable acidity than those containing C. vulgaris and control. In treatments containing 0.5 or 1 % microalgae, the viability was almost higher than 107 cfu/mL until the end of refrigerated storage.

Keywords

Chlorella vulgaris Probiotic A. platensis Yogurt 

References

  1. 1.
    Korbekandi H, Mortazavian AM, Iravani S (2011) Stability and technology of probiotic in fermented milks. In: Shah N (ed) Probiotic and prebiotic foods: technology, stability and benefits to the human health. Nova Science Publishing Ltd, USA, pp. 131–169Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mortazavian AM, Khosrokhavar R, Rastgar H, Mortazaei GR (2010) Effects of dry matter standardization order on biochemical and microbiological characteristics of Doogh (Iranian fermented milk drink). Ital J Food Sci 1:98–104Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shafiee G, Mortazavian AM, Mohammadifar MA, Koushki MR, Mohammadi AR, Mohammadi R (2010) Combined effects of dry matter content, incubation temperature and final pH of fermentation on biochemical and microbiological characteristics of probiotic fermented milk. Afr J Microbiol Res 4:1265–1274Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shah NP (2001) Functional foods from probiotics and prebiotics. Food Tech 55:46–53Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sohrabvandi S, Razavi SH, Mousavi SM, Motazavian AM (2010) Viability of probiotic bacteria in low- alcohol- and non-alcoholic beer during refrigerated storage. Philipp Agric Scientist 93:24–28Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tamime AY, Saarela M, Korslund Sondergaard A, Mistry VV, Shah NP (2005) In: Tamime AY (ed) Probiotic dairy products. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, UKGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Heydari S, Mortazavian AM, Ehsani MR, Mohammadifar MA, Ezzatpanah H, Sohrabvandi S (2011) Biochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of probiotic yogurt containing various prebiotic or fiber compounds. Ital J Food Sci 23:153–163Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mortazavian AM, Ehsani MR, Mousavi SM, Rezaei K, Sohrabvandi S, Reinheimer JA (2007) Effect of refrigerated storage temperature on the viability of probiotic micro-organisms in yogurt. Int J Dairy Technol 60:123–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sadaghdar Y, Mortazavian AM, Ehsani MR (2012) Survival and activity of five probiotic lactobacilli strains in two types of flavored fermented milk. Food Sci Biotechnol 1:151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ahmadi E, Mortazavian AM, Fazeli MR, Ezzatpanah H, Mohammadi R (2012) The effects of inoculants variables on the physicochemical and organoleptic properties of Doogh. Int J Diary Technol 2:274–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mortazavian AM, Ehsani MR, Azizi A, Razavi SH, Mousavi SM, Sohrabvandi S (2008) Viability of calcium alginate-microencapsulated probiotic bacteria in Iranian yogurt drink (Doogh) during the refrigerated storage period and under the simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Aust J Dairy Tech 63:24–29Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Anon: Iran national standard for probiotic yogurt; No. 11325. Available on www.isiri.org [In Persian] 2008a
  13. 13.
    Mortazavian AM, Ehsani MR, Mousavi SM, Reinheimer JA, Emamdjame Z, Sohrabvandi S, Rezaei K (2006) Preliminary investigation of the combined effect of heat treatment and incubation temperature on the viability of the probiotic micro-organisms in freshly made yogurt. Int J Dairy Technol 59:8–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mortazavian AM, Sohrabvandi S, Mousavi SM, Reinheimer JA (2006) Combined effects of temperature-related variables on the variables on the viability of probiotics in yogurt. Aus J Dairy Tech 61:248–252Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mortazavian AM, Sohrabvandi S, Reinheimer JA (2007) MRS-bile agar: Its suitability for the enumeration of mixed Probiotic cultures in cultured dairy products. Milchwissenschaft 62:270–272Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mortazavian AM, Ghorbanipour S, Mohammadifar MA, Mohamadi M (2011) Biochemical properties and viable probiotic population of yogurt at different bacterial inoculation rates and incubation temperatures. Philipp Agric Scientist 94:111–116Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gyenis B, Szigeti J, Molnar N, Varga L (2005) Use of dried microalgal biomasses to stimulate acid production and growth of Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium in milk. Acta Agraria Kaposváriensis 9:53–59Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Molnar N, Gyenis B, Varga L (2005) Influence of powdered A. platensis platensis biomass on acid production of lactococci in milk. Milchwissenschaft 4:380–382Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Varga L, Szigeti J, Kovacs R, Foldes T, Buti S (2002) Influence of a A. platensis platensis biomass on the microflora of fermented ABT milks during storage (R1). J Dairy Sci 85:1031–1038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Caire GZD, Parada JL, Zaccaro MC, Cano MM (2000) Effect of A. platensis platensis biomass on the growth of lactic acid bacteria in milk. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 16:563–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shimamatsu H (2004) Mass production of A. platensis, an edible microalga. Hydrobiologia 512:39–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Spolaore P, Joannis-Cassan Duran E, Isambert A (2006) Commercial applications of microalgae. J Biosci Bioengineer 2:87–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mendiola JA, Jaime L, Santoyo S, Reglero G, Cifuentes A, Ibanez E, Senoráns FJ (2007) Screening of functional compounds in supercritical fluid extracts from A. platensis platensis. Food Chem 102:1357–1367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Parada JL, Ceire GZD, Mule MCZ (1998) Cano MMS: Lactic acid bacteria growth promoters from A. platensis platensis. Int J Food Microbiol 45:225–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Varga L, Szigeti J (1998) Microbial changes in natural and algal yoghurts during storage. Acta Alimen 2:127–135Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mendes RL, Nobre BP, Cardoso MT, Pereira AP, Palavra AF (2003) Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of compounds with pharmaceutical importance from microalgae. Inorg Chim Acta 356:328–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zielke H, Kneifel H, Webb LE, Soeder CJ (1978) Stimulation of lactobacilli by an aqueous extract of the green alga Scenedesmus acutus 276–3a. Eur J Appl Microbio Biotechnol 6:79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Varga L, Szigeti J, Ördög V (1999) Effect of a A. platensis platensis biomass and that of its active components on single strains of dairy starter cultures. Milchwissenschaft 54:187–190Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sohrabvandi S, Mortazavian AM, Dolatkhah-nejad MR, Bahadori Monfared A (2012) Suitability of MRS-bile agar for the selective enumeration of mixed probiotic bacteria in presence of mesophilic lactic acid cultures and yogurt bacteria. Iran J Biotechnol 10:16–21Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Anon (2008b) Iran national standard for plain yogurt; No. 4046. Available on www.isiri.org (in Persian)
  31. 31.
    Molnar N (2009) Development of functional dairy food enriched by A. platensis. Tejgazdaság 2:15–22Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gibson GR, Roberfroid MB (1995) Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr 125:1041Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kurita H, Tajima O, Fukimbara T (1979) Isolation and identification of nucleosides in Chlorella extract. J Agr Chem Soc Jap 4:131–133Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shirota M, Nagamatsu N, Takechi Y (1964) Method for cultivating lactobacilli. US Patent 3,123, 128Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Stengel E (1970) Anlagentypen und Verfahren der technischen Algenmassenproduktion. Ber Dtsch Bot Ges 83:589–606Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Webb LE (1982) Detection by Warburg manometry of compounds stimulatory to lactic acid bacteria. J Dairy Res 49:479–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hannane Beheshtipour
    • 1
  • Amir Mohammad Mortazavian
    • 1
  • Parivash Haratian
    • 1
  • Kianoosh Khosravi Darani
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Food Science and Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences, Food Science and TechnologyShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Food Technology Research, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences, Food Science and TechnologyShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

Personalised recommendations