Mixture (D-optimal) design was used to investigate the effects of prebiotics such as inulin and oligofructose as fat and sugar replacers on quality parameters of quick breads (scones). Crust and crumb colour increased with the inclusion of prebiotics. Higher concentration of inulin and oligofructose in quick breads also showed a slight increase in crust and crumb hardness. Loaf volume significantly increased with the inclusion of prebiotics. The optimization tool indicated that by using a mixture of margarine (3.53%), oligofructose Orafti® L95 (10%), caster sugar (0.55%) and inulin Orafti® GR (5.92%), a quick bread with similar baking properties and textural attributes to the control can be achieved. The mixture design was successfully used to reduce the original levels of 10% fat and 10% sugar (percentages are based on flour weight). The calculated model performance indices accuracy factor and bias factor of the predicted quick-bread formulations showed a high applicability of the model. The variations between the predicted and experimental values obtained were within the acceptable error range, as depicted by the average mean deviation. Therefore, the predictive performance of the established model may be considered acceptable.
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This research was funded by the Irish Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Food under the Food Institutional Research Measure (FIRM). The authors would like to thank Beneo-Orafti (Tienen, Belgium) for providing the samples and the Baking Academy of Ireland (Dublin, Ireland).
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Rößle, C., Ktenioudaki, A. & Gallagher, E. Inulin and oligofructose as fat and sugar substitutes in quick breads (scones): a mixture design approach. Eur Food Res Technol 233, 167–181 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-011-1514-9
- Mixture design
- Quick bread