European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 233, Issue 2, pp 243–251 | Cite as

Quantification of Amadori products in cheese

  • Uta Schwietzke
  • Jessica Malinowski
  • Katja Zerge
  • Thomas HenleEmail author
Original Paper


To obtain basic information about the extent of the early Maillard reaction in commercially available cheese varieties of varying degrees of maturity, Amadori products (APs) formed between reducing sugars and the ε-amino group of lysine (ε-APs) or the α-amino of selected amino acids (α-APs) were analyzed. APs were determined as the corresponding N-(2-furoylmethyl) amino acids (FMAAs) after acid hydrolysis using RP–HPLC with UV-detection as well as mass spectroscopy. Identification of the FMAAs resulting from the α-APs of lysine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine was achieved for the first time for cheese samples. The content of furosine, which is a hallmark for ε-APs, ranged from to 3–75 mg/100 g protein corresponding to 24–591 μmol ε-AP/100 g protein. ε-AP levels declined during ripening in all investigated cheeses, depending on the cheese type and stage of maturation. The mean content of four α-APs ranged from 138 to 681 μmol/100 g protein. Lowest concentrations were found in long-term ripened cheese samples, indicating a putative degradation of α-APs and ε-APs during advanced stages of maturation. The ratio of α-APs to ε-APs might be a useful indicator of cheese ripening.


Amadori products Furosine α-N-(2-furoylmethyl) amino acids Maillard reaction Cheese Maturation 



Amadori products


N-(2-furoylmethyl)amino acid


o-Phthaldialdehyde assay


Non-protein nitrogen/trichloro acetic acid soluble nitrogen


Water soluble nitrogen


Dinitrosalicylic acid assay


Advanced glycation endproducts


Dry matter


Pearson correlation coefficients



We like to thank Mrs. Karla Schlosser for performing the amino acid analysis and Dr. Uwe Schwarzenbolz for his help during the LC–ESI–TOF–MS measurements.

Supplementary material

217_2011_1509_MOESM1_ESM.doc (79 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 79 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Uta Schwietzke
    • 1
  • Jessica Malinowski
    • 1
  • Katja Zerge
    • 1
  • Thomas Henle
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Food ChemistryTechnische Universität DresdenDresdenGermany

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