Advertisement

A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the detection of wasabi (Eutrema wasabi) in foods

  • Albert EugsterEmail author
  • Petra Murmann
  • Martine Borer
  • Andre Kaenzig
Original paper

Abstract

Wasabi (commonly described as Japanese horseradish, Eutrema wasabi syn. Wasabia japonica) has gained substantial attractiveness in recent years because of its characteristic flavour as ingredient in Japanese-style food products. Wasabi rhizomes are expensive compared to roots of common horseradish (Armoracia rusticana). A quantitative analytical method for the detection of wasabi plant is required for official food control authority laboratories to detect potential frauds. This paper presents a real-time PCR method allowing the detection and semi-quantification of wasabi (Eutrema wasabi syn. Wasabia japonica) in complex food matrices. The wasabi-specific primers and the TaqMan fluorescent probe are targeted at the multi-copy gene of the enzyme myrosinase. This method was found to be specific for wasabi and did not show any cross-reactivity with 24 food-relevant plant species, including 20 members of the Brassicaceae family. Because of using the multi-copy gene myrosinase, the sensitivity is very high with less than about 1 pg wasabi DNA per PCR. This real-time PCR method was applied to verify the correct declaration of 10 commercially available products containing wasabi according to the declared ingredients or the product description (wasabi powders, pastes, dressing, and snacks): 6 samples showed positive PCR results and in 4 samples it was not possible to detect any wasabi DNA. The reasons could be the lack of the wasabi plant material or the destruction of wasabi DNA during food processing. As a conclusion, the presented quantitative real-time PCR method is useful for sensitive and selective detection of wasabi in food products in routine analysis.

Keywords

Wasabi Real-time PCR Myrosinase Detection methods 

References

  1. 1.
    Kinae N, Masuda H, Shin IS, Furugori M, Shimoi K (2000) Functional properties of wasabi and horseradish. Bio-Factors 13:265–269Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Masuda H, Kinae N, Woo GJ, Shin IS (2004) Inhibitory effects of Gochoonangi (Wasabia japonica) against Helicobacter pylori and its urease activity. Food Sci Biotechnol 13:191–196Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shin IS, Masuda H, Kinae N (2004) Bactericidal activity of wasabi (Wasabia japonica) against Heliobacter pylori. Int J Food Microbiol 94:255–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hasegawa N, Matsumoto Y, Hoshino A, Iwashita K (1999) Comparison of effects of Wasabia japonica and allyl isothiocyanate on the growth of four strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in lean and fatty tuna meat suspensions. Int J Food Microbiol 49:27–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yano T, Yajima S, Virgona N, Yano Y, Otani S, Kumagai H, Sakurai H, Kishimoto M, Ichikawa T (2000) The effect of 6-methylthiohexyl isothiocyanate isolated from Wasabia japonica (wasabi) on 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanoneinduced lung tumorigenesis in mice. Cancer Lett 155:115–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hara M, Yogo T, Sumi T, Arai R, Kuboi T, Etoh H (2007) Detection of wasabi (Wasabia Japonica Matsum.) in food products by using myrosinase genes. Food Sci Technol Res 13:380–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rask L, Andreasson E, Ekbom B, Eriksson S, Pontoppidan B, Meijer J (2000) Myrosinase: gene family evolution and herbivore defense in Brassicaceae. Plant Mol Biol 42:93–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Saitoh S, Hara M, Kuboi T, Etoh H (2006) Cloning of myrosinase cDNA from Wasabia japonica Matsum. Food Sci Technol Res 11:412–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Swiss Food Manual (2004) Chapter 52B, Method 1.1, Berne 2004Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    European Network of GMO Laboratories (2008) Definition of minimum performance requirements for analytical methods of GMO testing, 2008; http://gmo-crl.jrc.ec.europa.eu/guidancedocs.htm
  11. 11.
    U N (1935) Genome analysis in Brassica with special reference to the experimental formation of B. napus and peculiar mode of fertilization Japan. J Bot 7:389–452Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Taberlet P, Gielly L, Pautou G, Bouvet J (1991) Universal primers for amplification of three noncoding regions of chloroplast DNA. Plant Mol Biol 17:1105–1109CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Albert Eugster
    • 1
    Email author
  • Petra Murmann
    • 1
  • Martine Borer
    • 1
  • Andre Kaenzig
    • 1
  1. 1.Cantonal Office of Consumer Protection AargauAarauSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations