Use of sourdough fermented wheat germ for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of the white bread
- 1.2k Downloads
Lactobacillus plantarum LB1 and Lactobacillus rossiae LB5, isolated from wheat germ and selected based on the kinetics of acidification, were used as starters for the manufacture of sourdough fermented wheat germ. A bread containing sourdough fermented wheat germ as an ingredient (SFWGB) was compared to breads made with (raw wheat germ bread, RWGB) or without (wheat flour bread, WFB) raw wheat germ. The higher concentration of free amino acids mainly differentiated SFWGB from WFB and RWGB. The in vitro protein digestibility of WFB was the highest, even if sourdough fermentation of wheat germ attenuated the difference. Phytase and antioxidant activities of SFWGB were highest. The specific volume and cell-total areas were also the highest for SFWGB. As determined by texture profile analysis, the values of hardness, resilience and fracturability of breads containing wheat germ were lower than those found in WFB. The crust lightness showed a decrease from WFB to SFWGB. As determined by sensory analysis, SFWGB had mainly acid taste and flavour and resulted more salty. Sourdough fermented wheat germ is an ingredient able to enhance nutritional, texture and sensory properties of bread.
KeywordsWheat germ Sourdough Lactic acid bacteria Bread
The authors thank Dott. Davide Minervini (Molini Tandoi-Pellegrino, Corato, BA-IT) for TPA analysis. This work was supported by the Italian Ministry of University and Research, project no. 12819, D.D. 1801 (31 December 2004) “PANTI”.
- 1.Amadò R, Arrigoni E (1992) Nutritive and functional properties of wheat germ. Int Food Ingred 4:30–34Google Scholar
- 2.Rizzello CG, Nionelli L, Coda R, De Angelis M, Gobbetti M (2009) Effect of sourdough fermentation on stabilization, and chemical and nutritional characteristics of wheat germ. Food Chem. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.08.016
- 4.FAO/WHO/UNU (1995) Energy and protein requirements, report of joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation, WHO Tech. Rep. Ser. No. 724. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 6.Matucci A, Veneri G, Dalla Pellegrina C, Zoccatelli G, Vincenzi S, Chignola R, Peruffo ADB, Rizzi C (2003) Temperature-dependent decay of wheat germ agglutinin activity and its implications for food processing and analysis. Food Chem 48:3522–3527Google Scholar
- 8.CC AA (2003) Approved methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemistry, 10th edn. AACC, MinnesotaGoogle Scholar
- 14.Slinkard K, Singleton VL (1997) Total phenol analysis: automation and comparison with manual methods. Am J Enol Vitic 28:49–55Google Scholar
- 32.WHO, World Health Organization (2007) Reducing salt intake in populations: report of a WHO forum and technical meeting Paris, France, 5–7 October 2006Google Scholar