European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 230, Issue 4, pp 645–654 | Cite as

Use of sourdough fermented wheat germ for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of the white bread

  • Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello
  • Luana Nionelli
  • Rossana Coda
  • Raffaella Di Cagno
  • Marco GobbettiEmail author
Original Paper


Lactobacillus plantarum LB1 and Lactobacillus rossiae LB5, isolated from wheat germ and selected based on the kinetics of acidification, were used as starters for the manufacture of sourdough fermented wheat germ. A bread containing sourdough fermented wheat germ as an ingredient (SFWGB) was compared to breads made with (raw wheat germ bread, RWGB) or without (wheat flour bread, WFB) raw wheat germ. The higher concentration of free amino acids mainly differentiated SFWGB from WFB and RWGB. The in vitro protein digestibility of WFB was the highest, even if sourdough fermentation of wheat germ attenuated the difference. Phytase and antioxidant activities of SFWGB were highest. The specific volume and cell-total areas were also the highest for SFWGB. As determined by texture profile analysis, the values of hardness, resilience and fracturability of breads containing wheat germ were lower than those found in WFB. The crust lightness showed a decrease from WFB to SFWGB. As determined by sensory analysis, SFWGB had mainly acid taste and flavour and resulted more salty. Sourdough fermented wheat germ is an ingredient able to enhance nutritional, texture and sensory properties of bread.


Wheat germ Sourdough Lactic acid bacteria Bread 



The authors thank Dott. Davide Minervini (Molini Tandoi-Pellegrino, Corato, BA-IT) for TPA analysis. This work was supported by the Italian Ministry of University and Research, project no. 12819, D.D. 1801 (31 December 2004) “PANTI”.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello
    • 1
  • Luana Nionelli
    • 1
  • Rossana Coda
    • 1
  • Raffaella Di Cagno
    • 1
  • Marco Gobbetti
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Plant Protection and Applied MicrobiologyUniversity of BariBariItaly

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