European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 228, Issue 4, pp 571–578 | Cite as

Occurrence of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol fatty acid esters in infant and baby foods

Original Paper


A series of fourteen starter formula, follow-up formula, and growing-up milk produced by three manufacturers was analyzed by for the chloropropanols 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol (1,3-DCP), 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and their fatty acid esters. While none of the products contained free chloropropanols at levels exceeding the method detections limits, all of them contained relatively high amounts of 3-MCPD esters. The latter concentrations ranged from 62 to 588 μg of 3-MCPD esters (bound 3-MCPD)/kg on the product basis and <300 (limit of quantification)—2,060 μg/kg expressed on the fat basis. These concentrations were proportional to the fat content in products as refined vegetable oils used by the manufacturers contain elevated levels of 3-MCPD esters depending on their origin and other factors. Regular intake of these products can lead to exceeding the tolerable daily intake that has been set for free 3-MCPD. The major types of 3-MCPD esters were the symmetric diesters with palmitic and oleic acids and asymmetric diesters with palmitic/oleic acid among which 1,2-palmitoyl, oleoyl-3-MCPD prevailed.


Infant food Baby food 3-Chloropropane-1,2-diol 3-MCPD Bound 3-MCPD 3-MCPD esters 


  1. 1.
    Davídek J, Velíšek J, Kubelka V, Janíček G. (1982) New chlorine-containing compounds in protein hydrolysates. In: Baltes W, Czedik-Eysenberg PB, Pfannhauser W (eds) Recent developments in food analysis proc euro food chem I. Vienna, Austria, 17–20 February 1981. Weinheim, Deerfield Beach, Florida, USA, pp 322–325Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Crews C, Brereton P, Davies A (2001) Food Addit Contam 18:271–280Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Crews C, Hough P, Brereton P, Harvey D, Macarthur R, Matthews W (2002) Food Addit Contam 19:22–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Breitling-Utzmann CM, Köbler H, Herbolzheimer D, Maier A (2003) Deutsche Lebensmittel-Rundschau 99:280–285Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hamlet CG, Sadd PA, Crews C, Velíšek J, Baxter DE (2002) Food Addit Contam 19:619–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hamlet CG, Sadd PA, Gray DA (2004) J Agric Food Chem 52:2059–2066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hamlet CG, Sadd PA, Gray DA (2004) J Agric Food Chem 52:2067–2072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Divinová V, Svejkovská B, Novotný O, Velíšek J (2004) Czech J Food Sci, Special Issue 22:230–234Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Doležal M, Chaloupská M, Divinová V, Svejkovská B, Velíšek J (2005) Eur Food Res Technol 221:221–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    SCF (2001) Opinion of the Scientific Committee on food on 3-monochloro-propane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) updating the SCF opinion of 1994. Adopted on 30 May 2001Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    JECFA (2001) Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, Fifty-seventh meeting, Rome, 5–14 June 2001Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    EC (2001) European Commission Regulation No. 466/2001. Setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Communities L77/1, 16 March. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Svejkovská B, Novotný O, Divinová V, Réblová Z, Doležal M, Velíšek J (2004) Czech J Food Sci 22:190–196Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hamlet CG, Sadd PA (2004) Czech J Food Sci, Special Issue 22:229–262Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Svejkovská B, Doležal M, Velíšek J (2006) Czech J Food Sci 24:172–179Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Divinová V, Doležal M, Velíšek J (2007) Czech J Food Sci 25:39–47Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zelinková Z, Svejkovská B, Velíšek J, Doležal M (2006) Food Addit Contam 23:1290–1298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Karšulínová L, Folprechtová B, Doležal M, Dostálová J, Velíšek J (2007) Czech J Food Sci 25:257–264Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Seefelder W, Varga N, Studer A, Williamson G, Scanlan FP, Stadler RH (2008) Food Addit Contam 25:391–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Collier PD, Cromie DDO, Davies AP (1991) J AOCS 68:785–790Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    WHO (2001) Infant and young child nutrition. World Health Organization, Executive Board, 109th Session, EB109/12Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kraft R, Brachwitz H, Etzold G, Langen P, Zöpel HJ (1979) Journal für praktische Chemie 321:756–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Whitby GS (1926) J Chem Soc 1458–1465Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schenzler C, Their H-P (2001) Food Addit Contam 18:875–879Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    The European Standard EN 1528-2 (1996) Fatty food—determination of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Part 2. Extraction of fat, pesticides and PCBs, and determination of fat contentGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Divinová V, Svejkovská B, Doležal M, Velíšek J (2004) Czech J Food Sci 22:182–189Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    The National Academies (2004) Committee on the evaluation of the addition of ingredients new to infant formula, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine of the National Academies: Infant formula, evaluation the safety of new ingredients. The National Academic Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Donangelo CM, Trugo NMF (2003) Human milk: composition and nutritional value. In: Caballero B, Trugo LC, Finglas PM (eds) Encyclopedia of food sciences and nutrition, 2nd edn. Academic Press, Dublin, p 3453Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bauchner E (2003) LEAVEN 39:123–125Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cerbulis J, Parks OW, Liu RH, Piotrowski EG, Farrell HM Jr (1984) J Agric Food Chem 32:474–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Weisshaar R (2008) Eur J Lipid Sci Technol, 110:on line versionGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zelinková Z, Velíšek J, Doležal M (2008) Estery 3-chlorpropan-12-diolu (3-MCPD) s mastnými kyselinami v potravinách. Sborník příspěvků XXXIX. Symposium o nových směrech výroby a hodnocení potravin, Skalský Dvůr, 26.-28.5.2008, Holasová M., Fiedlerová V., Špicner J., eds. (in press)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zelinková Z, Novotný O, Schůrek J, Velíšek J, Hajšlová J, Doležal M (2008) Food Addit Contam 25:669–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Medindia (2008). Available at:, accessed date 29/7/2008
  35. 35.
    Christie WW (2008) The lipid library. Available at:, accessed date 29/7/2008

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zuzana Zelinková
    • 1
  • Marek Doležal
    • 1
  • Jan Velíšek
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Chemistry and AnalysisInstitute of Chemical Technology PraguePragueCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations