Skip to main content

Effects of overprocessing on heat damage of UHT milk

Abstract

Formation of lactulose, furosine, galactosyl-|*beta*|-pyranone and lysinoalanine was studied in UHT milk samples produced by either direct or indirect heating on industrial plants and by indirect heating on a pilot plant. In particular, the effects of severe sterilization conditions, different proportions of milk recirculation, and storage of the finished product (23 °C for up to 90 days) have been investigated on the levels of the above molecules in UHT milk. An extensive increase of the values of all the indicators occurred when severe heat process was applied, but no direct relation was found between their levels and the nominal time–temperature conditions. Lactulose and furosine levels confirmed to be strictly correlated in UHT milk. In case of overheating or high proportion (60%) of milk recirculation, galactosyl-|*beta*|-pyranone formation was strongly enhanced, proving that also the advanced Maillard reaction takes place extensively, which is not detected by furosine value. Formation of lysinoalanine in UHT drinking milk on storage was pointed out for the first time. Lysinoalanine proved to be the most sensitive index of storage conditions among the four parameters studied. Data suggest that a realistic defence of UHT milk quality can be achieved only by fixing upper limits to heat damage parameters. Besides avoiding unjustified milk overheating, this approach may allow manipulations, like reprocessing expired milk, to be pointed out.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  1. European Commission (2005) Off J Eur Commun L 338:27–59

    Google Scholar 

  2. EU Commission, Dairy Chemists’ Group (2005) Doc. D(2005)HG/hussevi/chim05/053 Working Paper 04/07/2005 Brussels

  3. Claeys WL, Smout C, Van Loey AM, Hendrickx ME (2004) Biotechnol Prog 20:1–12

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. EU Commission, Dairy Chemists’ Group (1992) Doc. DG VI 5194/92 15/09/1992 Brussels

  5. Mortier L, Braekman A, Cartuyvels D, Van Renterghem R, De Block J (2000) Biotechnol Agron Soc Environ 4:221–225

    Google Scholar 

  6. Feinberg M, Dupont D, Efstathiou T, Louapre V, Guyonnet JP (2006) Food Chem 98:188–194

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Tschumi M, Eberhard P (2002) Contrôle de la qualité du lait UHT suisse de 1985 à 2002. http://www.alp.admin.ch/themen/00625/00692/index.html?lang=fr

  8. O’Brien J (1995) Heat-induced changes in lactose: isomerization, degradation, Maillard browning. In: Fox PF (ed) Heat induced changes in milk, 2nd edn. International Dairy Federation, Brussels, pp 134–170

    Google Scholar 

  9. De Koning PJ (1984) Voedingsmiddelentechnologie 17:25–27

    Google Scholar 

  10. Andrews GR (1984) J Soc Dairy Technol 37:92–95

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Pellegrino L, Resmini P, Luf W (1995) Assessment (indices) of heat treatment of milk. In: Fox PF (ed) Heat induced changes in milk, 2nd edn. International Dairy Federation, Brussels, pp 409–447

    Google Scholar 

  12. Elliott AJ, Dhakal A, Datta N, Deeth HC (2003) Aust J Dairy Technol 58:3–10

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. German Milk Ordinance (1989) Milchverordnung vom 23-6-1989. BGBL 1 n. 29 vom 28-6-1989 S.1140

  14. Morales FJ, Romero C, Jimenez-Perez S (2000) Int J Food Sci Technol 35:193–200

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. EU Commission, Dairy Chemists’ Group (1993) Doc. DG VI/4576/93, Brussels

  16. Schlimme E, Buchheim W, Heeschen W (1994) DMZ Lebensm Milchw 115:64–69

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Corzo N, Delgado T, Troyano E, Olano A (1994) J Food Prot 57:737–739

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Pellegrino L, De Noni I, Resmini P (1995) Int Dairy J 5:647–659

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Ledl F (1990) Chemical pathways of the Maillard reaction. In: Finot PA, Aeschbacher HU, Hurrell RF, Liardon R (eds) The Maillard reaction in food processing, human nutrition and physiology. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland, pp 19–42

    Google Scholar 

  20. Pellegrino L, Cattaneo S (2001) Nahrung 45:195–200

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Resmini P, Pellegrino L, Cattaneo S (2003) Ital J Food Sci 15:473–484

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Friedman M (1999) J Agric Food Chem 47(4):1295–1319

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Pellegrino L, Resmini P, De Noni I, Masotti F (1996) J Dairy Sci 79:725–734

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. D’Agostina A, Boschin G, Rinaldi A, Arnoldi A (2003) Food Chem 80:483–488

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Faist V, Drusch S, Kiesner C, Elmadfa I, Erbersdobler HF (2000) Int Dairy J 10:339–346

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. ISO 18329-IDF 193 (2004) Milk and milk products—determination of Furosine content—ion-pair reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography method

  27. International Standard IDF 147B (1998) Heat-treated milk—determination of lactulose content. Method using high-performance liquid chromatography (Reference Method). International Dairy Federation, Brussels

  28. Burton H (1994) Ultra-high-temperature processing of milk and milk products. Blackie, London

    Google Scholar 

  29. Dairy processing handbook (1995) Tecnotext AB, Lund

  30. Cerf O (1982) Rev Lait Fr 405:15–17

    Google Scholar 

  31. Elliott AJ, Datta N, Amenu B, Deeth HC (2005) J Dairy Res 72:442–446

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Professor Pierpaolo Resmini for encouragement and support.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Luisa Pellegrino.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Cattaneo, S., Masotti, F. & Pellegrino, L. Effects of overprocessing on heat damage of UHT milk. Eur Food Res Technol 226, 1099–1106 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-007-0637-5

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-007-0637-5

Keywords

  • UHT milk
  • Heat damage
  • Overprocessing
  • Lactulose
  • Furosine
  • Lysinoalanine