Skip to main content

Effects of processing and storage on the stability of free and esterified carotenoids of red peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) and hot chilli peppers (Capsicum frutescens L.)

Abstract

The stability of non-esterified carotenoids and carotenoid esters in paprika and chilli powder as affected by various processing treatments and storage conditions were studied. For this purpose, freshly harvested chilli and paprika pods were minced, immediately heated at 80, 90 and 100 °C for 5 and 10 min, respectively, and lyophilised. Alternatively, thermal treatment prior to mincing was applied. Processing resulted in a 25–34% loss of the initial carotenoid contents in chilli and 20–53% in paprika. Degradation of individual non-esterified carotenoids, mono- and diesters was monitored, generally showing an increased processing stability of mono- and diesters compared to their non-esterified counterparts. Capsanthin, capsorubin, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin mono- and diesters esterified with saturated fatty acids displayed similar stabilities, whereas susceptibility of the non-esterified pigments to degradation differed considerably. During storage over 4 months at ambient temperature pigment contents dropped by 16.7 and 9.6% in chilli and by 39.7 and 38.8% in paprika powders with and without illumination, respectively.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. 1.

    Mínguez-Mosquera MI, Pérez-Gálvez A, Garrido-Fernández J (2000) J Agric Food Chem 48:2972–2976

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Márkus F, Daood HG, Kapitány J, Biacs PA (1999) J Agric Food Chem 47:100–107

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Mínguez-Mosquera MI, Hornero-Méndez D (1994) J Agric Food Chem 42:38–44

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Hornero-Méndez D, Mínguez-Mosquera MI (2002) J Sci Food Agric 82:1564–1570

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Deli J, Molnar P, Matus Z, Toth G (2001) J Agric Food Chem 49:1517–1523

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Mínguez-Mosquera MI, Hornero-Méndez D (1994) J Agric Food Chem 42:640–644

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Hornero-Méndez D, Mínguez-Mosquera MI (2000) J Agric Food Chem 48:1617–1622

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Gross J (1991) Pigments in vegetables. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Gómez R, Pardo JE, Costa J, Navarro F, Varón R (1997) Riv Sci Aliment 26:91–96

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Biacs PA, Czinkotai B, Hoschke A (1992) J Agric Food Chem 40:363–367

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Lee DS, Chung SK, Kim HK,Yam KL (1991) J Food Qual 14:153–163

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Mínguez-Mosquera MI, Hornero-Méndez D (1994) J Agric Food Chem 42:1555–1560

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Schieber A, Carle R (2005) Trends Food Sci Tech 16:416–422

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Schiedt K, Liaaen-Jensen S (1995) Isolation and Analysis. In: Britton G, Liaaen-Jensen S, Pfander H (eds) Carotenoids. Vol. 1A: Isolation and analysis. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, pp 81–108

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Pérez-Gálvez A, Mínguez-Mosquera MI (2002) Lipid environment as modulator of the oxidation process of xanthophylls present in red pepper fruit (Capsicum annuum L.). In: Empis JA (ed) Functionalities of pigments in food. Artes Graficas, Alcabideche, pp 315–318

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Biacs P, Daood H, Pavisa A, Hajdu F (1989) J Agric Food Chem 37:350–353

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Goda Y, Nakamura H, Sakamo SS, Ishikawa K, Maitani T, Yamada T (1997) J Food Hyg Soc Jpn 38:240–247

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Schweiggert U, Kammerer DR, Carle R, Schieber A (2005) Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 19:2617–2628

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Deli J, Matus Z, Molnar P, Toth G (2001) Eur Food Res Technol 213:301–305

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Breithaupt DE, Schwack W (2000) Eur Food Res Technol 211:52–55

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Perez-Galves A, Mínguez-Mosquera MI (2005) Nutr Res 25:631–640

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Schweiggert U, Mix K, Schieber A, Carle R (2005) Inn Food Sci Emerg Technol 6:143–153

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Marx M, Schieber A, Carle R (2000) Food Chem 70:403–408

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Britton G (1995) UV/visible spectroscopy. In: Britton G, Liaaen-Jensen S, Pfander H (eds) Carotenoids. Vol. 1B: Spectroscopy, Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, pp 13–62

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Kiss GAC, Forgács E, Cserháti T, Mota T, Morais H, Ramos A (2000) J Chromatogr A 889:41–49

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Vesper H, Nitz S (1997) Adv Food Sci 19:124–130

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Weissenberg M, Schaeffler I, Menagem E, Barzilai M, Levy A (1997) J Chromatogr A 757:89–95

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Kimura M, Rodriguez-Amaya DB, Godoy H (1990) Food Chem 35:187–195

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Topuz A, Ozdemir F (2003) J Agric Food Chem 51:4972–4977

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    El-Adawy TA, Taha KM (2001) Food Chem 74:47–54

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Bekker NP, Ul'chenko NT, Glushenkova AI (2001) Chem Nat Compd 37:131–133

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Lin CH, Chen BH (2005) Eur Food Res Technol 221:274–280

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Chen BH, Tang YC (1998) J Agric Chem 46:2312–2318

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Chen BH, Peng HY, Chen HE (1995) J Agric Food Chem 43:1912–1918

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Marx M, Schieber A, Carle R (2003) Food Chem 83:609–417

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Deruere J, Roemer S, d'Harlingue A, Backhaus RA, Kuntz M, Camara B (1994) Plant Cell 6:119–133

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Salopek B, Ljubesic N (1994) Acta Bot Croat 53:7–13

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Sitte P, Falk H, Liedvogel (1980) Chromoplasts. In: Czygan FC (ed) Pigments in plants, Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart

  39. 39.

    Pérez-Gálvez A, Mínguez-Mosquera MI (2004) J Agric Food Chem 52:632–637

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Mínguez-Mosquera MI, Hornero-Méndez D (1997) J Food Prot 60:853–857

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Carnevale J, Cole ER, Crank G (1980) J Agric Food Chem 28:953–956

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Jarén-Galán M, Mínguez-Mosquera MI (1997) J Agric Food Chem 45:4814–4820

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Luning PA, Carey AT, Roozen JP, Wichers HJ (1995) J Agric Food Chem 52:3861–3869

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Schweiggert U, Schieber A, Carle R (2005) Inn Food Sci Emerg Technol 6:403–411

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Daood HG, Kapitány J, Albrecht K, Biacs P (2004) Effect of thermal dehydration of spice red pepper on stability of carotenoids and antioxidants. In: Dufossé L (ed) Proceedings of Pigments in food, more than colours. Pigments Publishing, Quimper, pp 160–162

    Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Henderson DE, Henderson SK (1992) J Agric Food Chem 40:2263–2268

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Ladrón de Guevara RG, Gonzáles M, García-Meseguer MJ, Nieto JM, Amo M, Varón R (2002) J Sci Food Agric 82:1061–1069

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Osuna-Garcia JA, Wall MM, Waddell CA (1998) J Agric Food Chem 46:5093–5096

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Czinkotai B, Daood HG, Biacs PA, Hajdu F (1989) J Liq Chromatogr 12:2707–2717

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Perucka I, Materska M (2003) Pol J Food Nutr 12/53:15–18

    Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Materska M, Perucka I (2005) J Agric Food Chem 53:1750–1756

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Schweiggert U, Schieber A, Carle R (2006) Inn Food Sci Emerg Technol, in press

  53. 53.

    Pérez-Gálvez A, Mínguez-Mosquera MI (2001) J Agric Food Chem 49:4864–4869

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Mínguez-Mosquera MI, Jarén-Galán M, Garrido-Fernández J (1993) J Agric Food Chem 41:2120–2124

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Osuna-Garcia JA, Wall MM (1998) J Food Qual 21:251–259

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Kanner J, Harel S, Palevitch D, Ben-Gera I (1977) J Food Technol 12:59–64

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Bera MB, Singh CJ, Shrivastava DC, Kumar KS, Sharma YK (2001) J Food Sci Tech 38:8–11

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Biacs PA, Daood HG, Dakar MA (1994) Acta Hort 368:177–184

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Lease JG, Lease EJ (1956) Food Technol 10:403–405

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Vámos-Vigyázó L (1981) CRC Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 15:49–127

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Morais H, Rodrigues P, Ramos C, Forgács E, Cserháti T, Oliveira J (2002) Food 46:308–310

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Breithaupt DE, Weller P, Wolters M, Hahn A (2003) Br J Nutr 90:795–801

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Breithaupt DE, Weller P, Grashorn MA (2003) Poult Sci 82:395–401

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Bowen PE, Herbst-Espinosa EA, Hussain M, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis J (2002) Nutrition 132:3668–3673

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Breithaupt DE, Schieber A (2004) Nachr Chem 52:306–309

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Mr. Michael Rendlen for supplying the raw material. One of the authors (U.S.) gratefully acknowledges funding of the present research by the Landesgraduiertenförderung Baden-Württemberg

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Andreas Schieber.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Schweiggert, U., Kurz, C., Schieber, A. et al. Effects of processing and storage on the stability of free and esterified carotenoids of red peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) and hot chilli peppers (Capsicum frutescens L.). Eur Food Res Technol 225, 261–270 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-006-0413-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Carotenoids
  • Carotenoid esters
  • Processing
  • Storage
  • Stability