Skip to main content

A correlation between the level of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity in cooked-with-rice and vegetable soybean (Glycine max L.) varieties

Abstract

This study was undertaken to determine the content of phenolic compounds contained in embryo, cotyledon and seed coat of nine soybean (Glycine max L.) varieties. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity was also measured to determine the correlation between the level of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. A total of 10 anthocyanin constituents and 21 phenolic compounds was detected and quantified. In all nine varieties, the seed coat and cotyledon had the highest and lowest levels of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins, respectively despite the fact that all of them showed a wide variation in total amounts of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins in seed coat, embryo, and cotyledon. The seed coat tissue, but not other seed parts, showed a strong correlation between the seed coat color and the content of both phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. The brown and black soybean seed coat contained much higher levels of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins in seed coat tissue than the yellow or green coat soybean. Among the individual phenolic compounds, syringic acid (214 μg g−1) and chlorogenic acid (31 μg g−1) were highest in seed coat and embryo, respectively. Myricetin was highest both in whole seed (16.7 μg g−1) and cotyledon (16.0 μg g−1), being equivalent to 20 and 30% of total phenolic compounds, respectively. Among the 10 anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-glucoside was found to accumulate at the highest level in the seed coat (1783 μg g−1), whole seed (106 μg g−1) and embryo (0.35 μg g−1), which correspond to 95, 96, and 40% of the total anthocyanin contents, respectively. The cotyledon accumulated pelargonidin-3-glucoside (0.39 μg g−1) at the highest level that is equivalent to 62% of total anthocyanin contents. DPPH activity was found to have a strong correlation (***probability < 0.001) with phenolic compounds (0.67***) and anthocyanins (0.70***).

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. 1.

    USAD (2004) op.cit note 4

  2. 2.

    The major statistics of Agriculture & Forestry (2004) Ministry of Agriculture & Forestry Republic of Korea

  3. 3.

    Koes R, Verweij W, Quattrocchio F (2005) Trends Plant Sci 10:236–242

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Paganga G (1996) Free Radic Biol Med 20:936–956

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Cheigh HS, Lee CY (1993) Life Sci 3:9–17

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Ramandthan L, Das NP (1992) J Agric Food Chem 40:17–21

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Kong JM, Chia LS, Goh NK, Chia TF, Brouillard R (2003) Phytochemistry 64:923–933

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Choung MG, Han WY, Kang ST, Baek IY, Shin DC, Kim SD, Kim SC, Moon HP, Kang KH (2002) Korea Soybean Digest 19:68–77

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Kim SH, Song HK, Ahn JK, Kim JT, Hahn SJ, Chung IM (2004) Korean J Crop Sci 49:82–88

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Kim JS, Kim JG, Kim WJ (2004) Korean J Food Sci Technol 2:294–298

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Choung MG, Baek IY, Kang ST, Han WY, Shin DC (2001) J Agric Food Chem 49:5848–5851

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Joo YH, Chung KW, Lee DJ (2004) Korean J Intl Agri 16:249–252

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Price KR, Colquhoun IJ, Barnes KA, Rhodes JC (1998) J Agric Food Chem 46:4898–4903

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Sun B, Leandro C, Ricardo da Silva J, Spranger E (1998) J Agric Food Chem 46:1390–1396

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Chung IM, Ahn JK, Chi HY, Lee JO (2000) Korean J Crop Sci 45:328–334

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    SAS (2000) SAS Institute, Cary, NC

  17. 17.

    Bae EA, Kwon TW, Moon GS (1997) Korean Soc Food Soc Food Sci Nutr 26:371–375

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Dueñas M, Hernández T, Estrella I (2005) Food Chem (in press)

  19. 19.

    Kim SH, Kwon TW, Lee YS, Choung MG, Moon GS (2005) Korean J Food Sci Technol 37:73–77

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Dueñas M, Hernández T, Estrella I (2002) Eur Food Res Technol 215:478–483

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Choi HC, Oh SK (1996) Korean J Crop Sci 41(S):1–9

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Hirota A, Taki S, Kawaii S, Yano M, Abe N (2000) Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 64:1038–1040

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Pratt DE, Birac PM (1979) J Food Sci 44:1720–1722

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Lee GH, Kwon BK, Yim SY, Oh MJ (2000) Korean J Postharvest Sci Technol 7:331–336

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by technology development program for Agriculture and Forestry, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Rep. of Korea.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to I. M. Chung.

Additional information

J. A. Kim, W. S. Jung, and S. C. Chun are equally contributed to this work.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kim, J.A., Jung, W.S., Chun, S.C. et al. A correlation between the level of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity in cooked-with-rice and vegetable soybean (Glycine max L.) varieties. Eur Food Res Technol 224, 259–270 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-006-0377-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Soybean
  • Phenolic compounds
  • Anthocyanins
  • Cooked-with-rice
  • Vegetable soybean
  • HPLC