Use of selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria to hydrolyze wheat and rye proteins responsible for cereal allergy
This work was aimed at showing the capacity of selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria to hydrolyze wheat and rye allergens. Hydrolysis was investigated after wheat sourdough fermentation and after treatment of wheat and rye sourdough breads with pepsin, trypsin and pancreatin, which mimicked the digestive process. As shown by immunoblotting with sera from allergic patients, wheat sourdough fermentation caused the disappearance of some IgE-binding proteins (albumins/globulins and gliadins mainly) with respect to the chemically acidified dough used as the control. The IgE-binding protein profile of wheat and rye sourdough breads differed from those of baker's yeast breads. The signals of the IgE-binding proteins contained in the sourdough breads disappeared after in vitro digestion with pepsin, trypsin and pancreatin. The same effect by digestive enzymes was not found for baker's yeast breads which showed persistent IgE-binding proteins. As shown by ELISA inhibition assays, the presence of IgE-binding low molecular weight proteins/peptides in sourdough breads significantly decreased with respect to baker's yeast breads. Proteolytic activity by selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria may have an importance during food processing to produce pre-digested wheat and rye dough which contains IgE-binding proteins degradable by digestive enzymes.
KeywordsBread Lactic acid bacteria Proteolysis Sourdough Wheat and rye allergens
The authors thank Dr. Enrico Scala (Department of Onco-Immuno-Dermatology, IDI-IRCCS, 00167 Rome, Italy) for helpful discussion and Dr. Paola A.M. Loguercio (Dipartimento di Biochimica e Biologia Molecolare, University of Bari, 70126 Bari, Italy) for immunological analyses.
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